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  • 1
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    Freiburg i. Br.: Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Institut für Allgemeine Wirtschaftsforschung, Abteilung für Wirtschaftspolitik und Ordnungsökonomik
    Publication Date: 2019-01-29
    Description: [Einleitende Bemerkungen] Eine Reform der Grundsteuer ist unabweisbar geworden. Dies ist nicht dem politischen Willen von Bund oder Ländern geschuldet, sondern geht auf das Urteil des Bundesverfassungsgerichts vom 10. April 2018 zurück, wonach die Einheitsbewertung zur Ermittlung der Bemessungsgrundlage der Grundsteuer jedenfalls seit dem 1. Januar 2002 unvereinbar mit Art. 3 Abs. 1 Grundgesetz und somit verfassungswidrig ist. Diese Entscheidung war spätestens seit dem Jahr 2010 absehbar, als der Bundesfinanzhof feststellte, dass „[…] das weitere Unterbleiben einer allgemeinen Neubewertung des Grundvermögens […]“ für Stichtage nach dem 1.1.2007 mit der Verfassung nicht vereinbar ist (Pressemitteilung BFH vom 11. August 2010). Der Wissenschaftliche Beirat beim Bundesfinanzministerium legte im Dezember 2010 eine Stellungnahme zur Grundsteuerreform vor, die Möglichkeiten zu einer Neubewertung der Immobilien in Deutschland mit einigermaßen vertretbarem administrativem Aufwand aufzeigte. Gleichwohl haben Bund und Länder die vergangenen acht Jahre nicht für eine Reform nutzen können. Insbesondere unter den Ländern bestand keine Einigkeit, ob ein wertbasiertes Modell oder ein reines Flächenmodell zur Ermittlung der Bemessungsgrundlage der Grundsteuer herangezogen werden sollte. Diese Frontstellung besteht zwischen den beiden Lagern fort. Nur bleibt nun leider wenig Zeit, eine Reform der Grundsteuer auf den Weg zu bringen. Bis zum Ende des Jahres 2019 muss der Gesetzgeber die Grundsteuer reformiert haben und ein neues Bewertungsgesetz verabschiedet haben. Danach hat der Gesetzgeber fünf Jahre Zeit, also bis zum 31. Dezember 2024, die neuen Bewertungsregeln anzuwenden. Diese Frist ist für eine Bewertung aller Immobilien in Deutschland relativ kurz. Das Bundesfinanzministerium hat mittlerweile seine Vorschläge für eine Grundsteuerreform unterbreitet. Darin sind zwei Modelle enthalten, ein wertunabhängiges, flächenbasiertes Modell und ein wertabhängiges Modell, in das Boden- und Gebäudewertcharakteristika einfließen. Das Bundesfinanzministerium favorisiert sein wertabhängiges Grundsteuermodell. Vor diesem Hintergrund, und weil die Zeit drängt, spitzt sich die Debatte derzeit weiter zu. In diesem Beitrag soll daher das Für und Wider der unterschiedlichen Modelle beleuchtet werden. Zudem werden Weiterungen der Reform, insbesondere die Möglichkeit der formalen Überwälzung der Grundsteuer auf den Mieter diskutiert.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 52 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Kyklos 50 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: Since the sixties, the discussion whether democracy is a precondition for or a result of economic growth has not yet been finished. In this paper a comparative institutional analysis of the relative performance of direct and representative democratic decision making in the Swiss economy is undertaken using a cross section of the 26 Swiss states in 1989 and pooled cross section time series data for the states from 1982 to 1993. The empirical results and robustness tests support the hypothesis that the stronger control of the representatives by the voters due to obligatory and optional referenda leads to better economic performance.<section xml:id="abs1-2"><title type="main">ZUSAMMENFASSUNGSeit den sechziger Jahren diskutieren Sozialwissenschaftler darüber, welche Auswirkungen De-mokiatie auf das wirtschaftliche Wachstum eines Landes hat. In diesem Aufsatz wird der Einfluss direkt- und repräsentativ-demokratischer Entscheidungsprozesse in einer vergleichenden institutionellen Analyse unter Verwendung von kantonalen Querschnittsdaten für 1989 und gepoolten Querschnitts- und Zeitreihendaten für den Zeitraum von 1982 bis 1993 untersucht. Die empirischen Ergebnisse und unterschiedliche Robustheitstests stützen die Hypothese, dass die stärkere Kontrolle der Repräsentanten durch die Stimmbürger mit Hilfe von obligatorischen und fakultativen Referenden zu einer relativ besseren wirtschaftlichen Leistungsfähigkeit führt.<section xml:id="abs1-3"><title type="main">RÉSUMÉLa question de savoir si les institutions démocratiques ont un effet positif ou negatif sur le développement économique est discutée depuis les années soixante à soixante-dix. La présente étude économétrique compare l'effet de différents types d'institutions démocratiques (démocratic représentative et directe) sur le développement économique. A cette fin nous analysons le niveau de développement économique des cantons suisses en fonction de leurs institutions politiques. Les résultats empiriques, qui se révèlent robustes dans différents tests, appuient l'hypothèse qu'un contr&#x006f;&#x030c;le plus étroit des élus par le référendum facultatif ou obligatoire conduit à une plus grande performance économique.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK and Boston, USA : Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
    Kyklos 55 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1467-6435
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: The authors would like to thank Gerald Hosp and Hannelore Weck-Hannemann for valuable comments and suggestions. The usual disclaimer applies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2018-04-12
    Description: This paper analyses the importance of fiscal mechanisms for regional risk sharing and redistribution in Switzerland. Switzerland is a particularly interesting setting in this context because it features both a high level of fiscal autonomy for Swiss cantons and explicit fiscal transfers between the federal government and the cantons. Based on panel-data analysis we study the redistributive and stabilizing properties of fiscal equalization transfers, federal government transfers in general, direct federal taxation, the unemployment insurance scheme and the first pillar pension scheme. We find a combined redistributive effect of these mechanisms of about 20%. This means that long-run income differentials of 1 Swiss Franc between cantons translate into differences of long-run disposable income after taxes and transfers of about 80 cents. The combined contemporary stabilization effect with respect to short-term income fluctuations amounts to less than 10%, which is a small effect compared to previous findings for other countries.
    Keywords: E62 ; H10 ; H70 ; ddc:330 ; regional risk sharing ; redistribution ; fiscal transfers
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-6997
    Keywords: tertiary art markets ; private and public museums‘ purchases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Art History , Economics
    Notes: Abstract This study examines how art museums‘purchasing policy influences the auction prices ofpaintings. Using a cross section of non-speculativetransactions during the period 1820–1970, we findconsiderable empirical support for the hypothesisthat public museums outside the U.S. pay above averageprices in auction markets providing higher thanaverage yields to private sellers. The typical U.S.private museums appear to be more restricted byfinancial constraints and the development of thegeneral economic conditions than their publiccounterparts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-06-01
    Description: We investigate the political determinants of risk premiums which sub-national governments in Switzerland have to pay for their sovereign bond emissions. For this purpose we analyse financial market data from 288 tradable cantonal bonds in the period from 1981 to 2007. Our main focus is on two different institutional factors. First, many of the Swiss cantons have adopted strong fiscal rules. We find evidence that both the presence and the strength of these fiscal rules contribute significantly to lower cantonal bond spreads. Second, we study the impact of a credible no-bailout regime on the risk premia of potential guarantors. We make use of the Leukerbad court decision in July 2003 which relieved the cantons from backing municipalities in financial distress, thus leading to a fully credible no-bailout regime. Our results show that this break lead to a reduction of cantonal risk premia by about 25 basis points. Moreover, it cut the link between cantonal risk premia and the financial situation of the municipalities in its canton which existed before. This demonstrates that a not fully credible no-bailout commitment can entail high costs for the potential guarantor.
    Keywords: E62 ; G12 ; H63 ; H74 ; ddc:330 ; Sub-national government bonds ; fiscal rules ; no-bailout clause ; sovereign risk premium
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW)
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: This paper provides a quantitative review of the empirical literature on the tax impact on corporate debt financing. Synthesizing the evidence from 46 previous studies, we find that this impact is substantial. In particular, the tax rate proxy determines the outcome of primary analyses. Measures like the simulated marginal tax rate (Graham (1996a)) avoid a downward bias in estimates for the debt response to tax. Moreover, debt characteristics, econometric specifications, and the set of control-variables affect tax effects. Accounting for misspecification biases by means of meta-regressions, we predict a marginal tax effect on the debt ratio of 0.3.
    Keywords: G30 ; H32 ; F23 ; ddc:330 ; capital structure ; corporate income tax ; meta-analysis ; Körperschaftsteuer ; Steuerwirkung ; Kapitalstruktur ; Fremdkapital ; Meta-Analyse ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Kiel und Hamburg: ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2015-02-17
    Description: We investigate the political determinants of risk premiums which sub-national governments in Switzerland have to pay for their sovereign bond emissions. For this purpose we make use of financial market data from 288 tradable cantonal bonds in the period from 1981 to 2007. Our main focus is on two different political influences. First, many of the Swiss cantons have adopted very strong fiscal rules. We find evidence that both the presence and the strength of these fiscal rules contribute significantly to lower cantonal bond spreads. Second, we study the impact of a credible no-bailout regime on the risk premia of potential guarantors. We make use of the Leukerbad court decision in July 2003 which relieved the cantons from backing municipalities in financial distress, thus leading to a fully credible no-bailout regime. Our results show that this break lead to a reduction of cantonal risk premia by about 25 basis points. Moreover, it cut the link between cantonal risk premia and the financial situation of the municipalities in its canton which existed before. This demonstrates that a not fully credible no-bailout commitment can entail high costs for the potential guarantor.
    Keywords: E62 ; G12 ; H63 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: We discuss the effect of formal political institutions (electoral systems, fiscal decentralization, presidential and parliamentary regimes) on the extent and direction of income (re-) distribution. Empirical evidence is presented for a large sample of 70 economies and a panel of 13 OECD countries between 1981 and 1998. The evidence indicates that presidential regimes are associated with a less equal distribution of disposable incomes, while electoral systems have no significant effects. Fiscal competition is associated with less income redistribution and a less equal distribution of disposable incomes, but also with a more equal primary income distribution. Our evidence also is in line with earlier empirical contributions that find a positive relationship between trade openness and equality in primary and disposable incomes, as well as the overall redistributive effort.
    Keywords: D31 ; H22 ; H11 ; H50 ; I38 ; P50 ; ddc:330 ; redistribution ; formal institutions ; fiscal decentralization ; presidential and parliamentary regimes ; electoral systems
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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