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  • 1
    ISSN: 0305-0491
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0968-0004
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 366 (1993), S. 338-340 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Because the symbionts cannot be cultured12 we used physically purified bacteria13 for our experiments which were incubated under anaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate. Nitrite appeared in the medium at a linear rate (0.91 & plusmn;0.07nmol per mg protein per min, " = 3) ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of comparative physiology 164 (1995), S. 561-569 
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: d-Alanine ; Chemoautotrophic symbiosis ; Lucinidae ; Clam, Lucinoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The chemoautotrophic symbiont-bearing clam Lucinoma aequizonata contains very high levels of free d-alanine in all tissues. The possible sources for this amino acid and its involvement in the clams' metabolism were investigated. Very low levels of d-alanine (generally below 1 μmol·l-1) were measured in the sediment porewaters from the habitat of the clams. Experiments with 14C-labeled tracers demonstrate an active metabolism of d-alanine in the clams rather than a role as inert waste product. d-alanine is metabolized at about 0.12 μmol·g fw-1·h-1. Label from aspartate, but not glucose and CO2, is incorporated into d-alanine. Incubation with labeled d-alanine did not result in formation of radioactive l-alanine. Tests for alanine racemase (EC 5.1.1.1) and d-amino acid oxidase (EC 1.4.3.3.) did not show activity in either gill, i.e. symbiont and host, or foot tissue. d-Alanine amino transferase (EC 2.6.1.b.) was demonstrated in gill and foot tissues. Two sources for d-alanine are proposed: a degradation of cell walls of symbiotic bacteria and production by the host using a d-specific alanine transaminase.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Observations on fine structure, metabolic enzymes and stable isotope ratios of several species of Pogonophora from a wide range of habitats suggest that members of this enigmatic phylum of worm-like deep-sea animals use internal chemoauto -trophic bacteria as part of their nutrition, allowing them ...
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-08-27
    Description: Maintaining deep sea animals in in situ conditions has always been technically difficult because of the high-pressure requirements. Even more difficult are any attempts in manipulating or sampling these organisms while keeping them alive in high-pressure aquaria. We present a technique to withdraw blood samples by vascular catheterization which allows withdrawal of samples of during maintenance of specimens under high-pressure conditions. We have developed this technique to answer a long debated question, how carbon dioxide is transported from the ambient sea water to the bacterial symbionts inside the trophosome of the hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila. Our results indicate that the carbon supply to the symbionts is mainly through inorganic CO2 while its incorporation into malate and succinate may serve storage functions at periods of low CO2 availability in the environment.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    American Society for Microbiology
    In:  Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61 (4). pp. 1630-1633.
    Publication Date: 2015-08-31
    Description: The marine bivalve Lucinoma aequizonata has intracellular chemoautotrophic symbionts residing in the gill tissue. These bacteria are capable of nitrate respiration even under fully saturated oxygen conditions. Nitrate reductase in the symbionts of L. aequizonata appears to be constitutively expressed and without significant regulation by oxygen or nitrate. We discuss the stationary-phase growth state of the symbionts as an explanation for the lack of enzyme induction.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-02-09
    Description: The marine bivalve Lucinoma aequizonata (Lucinidae) maintains a population of sulfide-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria in its gill tissue. These are housed in large numbers intracellularly in specialized host cells, termed bacteriocytes. In a natural population of L. aequizonata, striking variations of the gill colors occur, ranging from yellow to grey, brown and black. The aim of the present study was to investigate how this phenomenon relates to the physiology and numbers of the symbiont population. Our results show that in aquarium-maintained animals, black gills contained fewer numbers of bacteria as well as lower concentrations of sulfur and total protein. Nitrate respiration was stimulated by sulfide (but not by thiosulfate) 33-fold in homogenates of black gills and threefold in yellow gill homogenates. The total rates of sulfide-stimulated nitrate respiration were the same. Oxygen respiration could be measured in animals with yellow gills but not in animals with black gills. The cumulative data suggest that black-gilled clams maintained in the aquarium represent a starvation state. When collected from their natural habitat black gills contain the same number of bacteria as yellow gills. Also, no significant difference in glycogen concentrations of the host tissues was observed. Therefore, starvation is unlikely the cause of black gill color in a natural population. Alternative sources of nutrition to sulfur-based metabolism are discussed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) performed on the different gill tissues, as well as on isolated symbionts, resulted in a single gill symbiont amplification product, the sequence of which is identical to published data. These findings provide molecular evidence that one dominant phylotype is present in the morphologically different gill tissues. Nevertheless, the presence of other phylotypes cannot formally be excluded. The implications of this study are that the gill of L. aequizonata is a highly dynamic organ which lends itself to more detailed studies regarding the molecular and cellular processes underlying nutrient transfer, regulation of bacterial numbers and host–symbiont communication.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Coevolution ; Phylogeny ; 16S rRNA ; Hydrothermal vent ; Chemoautotrophic symbionts
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic (thioautotrophic) bacteria are now known to occur as endosymbionts in phylogenetically diverse bivalve hosts found in a wide variety of marine environments. The evolutionary origins of these symbioses, however, have remained obscure. Comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis was used to investigate whether thioautotrophic endosymbionts are monophyletic or polyphyletic in origin and to assess whether phylogenetic relationships inferred among these symbionts reflect those inferred among their hosts. 16S rRNA gene sequences determined for endosymbionts from nine newly examined bivalve species from three families (Vesicomyidae, Lucinidae, and Solemyidae) were compared with previously published 16S rRNA sequences of thioautotrophic symbionts and free-living bacteria. Distance and parsimony methods were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria. All newly examined symbionts fall within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria, in clusters containing previously examined symbiotic thioautotrophs. The closest free-living relatives of these symbionts are bacteria of the genus Thiomicrospira. Symbionts of the bivalve superfamily Lucinacea and the family Vesicomyidae each form distinct monophyletic lineages which are strongly supported by bootstrap analysis, demonstrating that host phylogenies inferred from morphological and fossil evidence are congruent with phylogenies inferred for their respective symbionts by molecular sequence analysis. The observed congruence between host and symbiont phylogenies indicates shared evolutionary history of hosts and symbiont lineages and suggests an ancient origin for these symbioses.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: aquatic Oligochaeta ; gutless oligochaetes ; structure ; ecology ; physiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Phallodrilus leukodermatus is not only characterized by the complete absence of mouth, gut, anus and nephridia, but also by an exceptional dermal ultrastructure which is associated with gram-negative bacteria. The vertical distribution of the worms from Bermudian carbonate sands is also unusual in attaining population maximum at oligoxic or anoxic depths around the redox discontinuity (RPD) layer, where extremely high concentrations of amino acids and sugars are to be recorded. Based on results from current ecophysiological and ultrastructural studies, an interpretation of the unique biology of the worms is attempted.
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