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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Biochemistry 32 (1993), S. 12346-12352 
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin ; CDPK ; cytoskeleton ; cytochalasin D (CD) ; rhodamine-phalloidin (RP) ; pollen ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We recently purified a calcium-dependent but calmodulin- and phospholipid-independent protein kinase (CDPK) from cultured plant cells (Harmon et al.: Plant Physiology 83:830-837, 1987). A monoclonal antibody (mAb 3B9) directed against CDPK was used to localize this protein in Allium root cells and Tradescantia pollen tubes using immunofluorescence techniques. The mAb 3B9 staining pattern showed that CDPK is localized within a fibrous network in the cytoplasm resembling the normal interphase network of F-actin. Treatment of tissue with 10 μM cytochalasin D (CD) prior to fixation abolished the staining pattern. Double-localization experiments in which pollen tubes were first stained with mAb 3B9 and then with rhodamine-phalloidin (RP) demonstrated that CDPK and F-actin were colocalized. Monoclonal antibody 3B9 did not react with purified actin from rabbit muscle or Dictyostelium and did not bind to proteins corresponding to the Mr of actin in crude extracts of Allium root tips and Tradescantia pollen tubes.CDPK did not phosphorylate purified rabbit muscle or Dictyostelium actin in vitro. Binding studies showed that CDPK (1) does not cosediment with actin filaments and (2) does not form a complex with G-actin. The data indicate that although CDPK does not interact directly with actin, it may be associated with an actin-binding protein and therefore could play a role in the regulation of the plant cytoskeleton.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin-binding protein ; Dictyostelium ; cytoskeleton ; amoeboid movement ; calcium ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A protein from Dictyostelium discoideum with an apparent subunit molecular weight of 95,000 daltons (95K protein) was previously identified as an actin-binding protein ‘Hellewell and Taylor, 1979’. In this paper, we present a method for purifying the protein, and characterize some important aspects of its structure and function. Purification of the 95K protein is achieved by fractionation with ammonium sulfate followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, gel filtration on 6% agarose, and final purification on hydroxyapatite. The 95K protein is a dimer, composed of apparently identical subunits. It is a rod-shaped molecule, 38 nm in length, with a Stokes radius of 74 Å. In these structural properties, the 95K protein is similar to muscle and nonmuscle α-actinins. The 95K protein and filamin are equally competent, when compared on a weight basis, to enhance the apparent viscosity of actin as determined by falling ball viscometry. The apparent viscosity of mixtures of the 95K protein and actin is dramatically reduced at pH greater than 7.0 or free ‘Ca2+’ greater than 10-7 M. We also examine the mechanism by which calcium regulates the interaction of the 95K protein and actin. A change in free ‘Ca2+’ induces no detectable change in the quaternary structure of the 95K protein. Our experiments indicate that the 95K protein does not dramatically alter the length distribution of actin filaments in the presence of micromolar free ‘Ca2+’. A large fraction of the 95K protein cosediments with actin in the presence of low free ‘Ca2+’ (ca. 3 × 10-8M), but not in the presence of high free ‘Ca2+’ (ca. 4 × 10-6M). We conclude that increased free ‘Ca2+’ inhibits gelation of actin by the 95K protein by reducing the affinity of the 95K protein for actin. We propose that 95K protein is an important component of the cytoskeletal/contractile system in D. discoideum amoebae.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin filaments ; cytokinesis ; phagocytosis ; contractile vacuole ; immunofluorescence ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae possess eight different actin crosslinking proteins. Immunofluorescence microscopy has been employed in this study to investigate the intracellular localization of two of these proteins, α-actinin and the 30 kD actin-bundling protein, to investigate whether they are redundant, or alternatively, make distinct contributions to cell structure and movement. The 30 kD protein is concentrated in the cleavage furrow of dividing cells, while enhanced staining for α-actinin is not apparent in this region. By contrast, α-actinin is concentrated around the contractile vacuole, while the 30 kD protein is not preferentially localized in the area of this organelle. Association of α-actinin with the contractile vacuole was confirmed by colocalization with calmodulin, a marker of this organelle. There are temporal differences in the localization of the 30 kD protein and α-actinin during phagocytosis. The 30 kD protein is localized in the phagocytic cup, but disassociates from phagosomes soon after internalization [Furukawa et al., 1992: Protoplasma 169: 18-27]. α-actinin enters the phagocytic cup after the 30 kD protein, and remains associated with the phagosome after the 30 kD protein has disassociated. These results support the hypothesis that α-actinin and the 30 kD protein play distinct roles in cell structure and movement in Dictyostelium. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: myosin phosphorylation ; actin polymerization ; chemotactic factors ; leukocytes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Changes in the state of polymerization of actin and phosphorylation of myosin have been observed in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) soon after the addition of the chemotactic peptide N-formylnorleucylleucylphenylalanine. At a time when the cells are observed to extend many ruffles or lamellipodia from their surface, the fraction of the cellular actin present in a monomeric form is decreased by about 25% as assayed by the ability of the G-actin to inhibit DNAase. These changes are temporally correlated with an increase in the staining by nitrobenzooxadiazole (NBD)-phallacidin, a probe that binds F-actin selectively. The NBD-phallacidin staining is observed in the surface ruffles. When the peptide concentration is decreased by addition of a tenfold excess of buffer, cells withdraw their surface ruffles and form blebs. These changes correlate with an increase in the G-actin levels detected with the DNAase inhibition assay. An increase in phosphorylation of the 20,000-dalton light chain of myosin is also observed in leukocytes stimulated by addition of chemotactic peptide. These observations of changes in cytoskeletal proteins of PMNs provide a beginning for further studies on the regulation of cell motility by chemotactic factors.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: gelation ; actin ; filamin ; cytoplasm ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have compared the meniscus depletion assay and falling ball viscometry, two means of assessing the extent of gelation in actin-based systems using mixtures of actin and the actin-binding protein filamin. We examined the effect of varying the concentrations of actin and filamin in both assays. The interaction of actin and filamin was detected only above a threshold concentration of filamin. This threshold concentration was lower for falling ball viscometry than for the meniscus depletion assay at equal actin concentrations. At constant concentrations of filamin, an increase in actin concentration caused an increase in apparent viscosity measured by the falling ball assay, but a decrease in sedimentability detected by the meniscus depletion assay. The rate of sedimentation of actin was dependent on the molar ratio of actin to filamin. At each molar ratio, the sedimentation of actin was not dependent on the specific concentrations of actin and filamin used. The apparent viscosity was dependent on both the molar ratio and the specific concentrations of actin and filamin. To relate the present results to earlier studies, we examined mixtures of actin and filamin using a macroscopic assay of gelation (tube tipping assay), and polarized light microscopy. The effect of increasing filamin concentration in the four assays was compared at three actin concentrations. Mixtures of actin and filamin whose apparent viscosities were low enough to be estimated by falling ball viscometry were optically isotropic fluids that flowed out of inverted test tubes. Mixtures of actin and filamin in the range of sensitivity of the meniscus depletion assay were either viscous fluids or gels, and were either optically isotropic or anisotropic. Thus, the four assays provide different estimates of gelation. Both the meniscus depletion assay and falling ball viscometry can be used to determine relative gelation activity, but neither can be used as a quantitative assay of gelation.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The flagellated protozoan Giardia has been shown by 16S rRNA sequence analysis to be one of the most primitive of the eukaryotes. A gene encoding the protein fibrillarin, a pre-rRNA processing protein implicated in rRNA methylation and ribosome assembly, has been isolated. A genomic DN'A fragment 1,240 base pairs long containing an open reading frame of 981 base pairs (327 amino acids) was sequenced. The deduced protein sequence of 35.3 kDa is similar to other known fibrillarin sequences. The Giardia sequence includes the amino terminal glycine/arginine rich domain characteristic of eukaryotic fibrillarins but is unique in having a large number of acidic residues in this domain. Phylogenetic analysis of the available fibrillarin sequences is consistent with the assignment of Giardia to a position close to the most primitive of the eukaryotes. A monoclonal antibody to yeast fibrillarin crossreacts with a 36 kDa polypeptide from Giardia on western blots and diffusely stains both nuclei of the organism by immunofluorescence microscopy. This result is consistent with the absence of well defined nucleoli in this organism. The evolutionary conservation of fibrillarin suggests an important function for this protein in ribosome biosynthesis, and this function appears to be maintained from the archaebacteria, which lack a nucleus, to Giardia, which contains a nucleus but lacks a prominent nucleolus, to higher mammals, which have both nucleus and nucleolus.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0192-253X
    Keywords: Dictyostelium ; filopodia ; actin binding proteins ; calcium ; cell motility ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The Dictyostelium discoideum 30,000 dalton actin-binding protein is an actin cross-linking protein that organizes formation of parallel bundles of actin filaments in vitro, and is present in filopodia in living cells. This protein binds calcium directly and exhibits a decreased affinity for actin filaments in the presence of micromolar calcium. In this work, the existence of antigenic homologs of the 30,000 dalton protein in Physarum polycephalum, Schistosoma mansoni, Chara carolina, and Drosophila melanogaster is detected by use of affinity purified antibody and electrophoretic blotting methods. The expression of this protein during development of Dictyostelium is also analyzed, revealing a progressive 3-fold decrease in the level of this protein in amoebae between the vegetative and slug stages. A highly ordered structure of bundles of actin and the 30,000 dalton protein formed in vitro is inferred from the presence of transverse striations on the bundles with a minor periodicity at 11.4 nm and a major periodicity at 33.9 nm. Finally, we propose a working model of the interaction of this actin cross-linking protein with actin filaments to form bundles.
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