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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: This study focuses on Anguilliformes specimens revising which collected during 2006-08 in some Iranian museums. For this study, all museum samples from Iranian coastal waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea were investigated. The results indicated that species diversity in the Iranian waters can be classified into six families of Anguilliformes (eels and morays fishes). A total of 11 species - consisting of six families have been identified, of these the highest species diversity belongs to the Muraenidae with five genus and eight species. Also, there were two endemic species Muraenesox cinereus (Muraenesocidae) and Gymnothorax undulatus (Muraenidae). More than ten rare species were the first report and record from Iranian territorial waters. There are Ichthyapus acuticeps, Synaphobranchus affinis, Strophidon sathete, Rhinomuraena quaesita, Gymnothorax johnsoni, G. kidako, Muraenesox bagio, Pseudoxenomystax albescens, Muraenesox talabonoides, and Conger cinereus cinereus.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-05-29
    Description: Monthly samples of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn, 1782) were used to determine (1) feeding habits and (2) reproduction characteristics of the species in relation to its size, spawning season and sex in the northern part of the Persian Gulf from January to December 2013. The smaller length classes of all samples were dominated by male fish. All gonads examined, were ovotestis during the spawning period from February till May. Male and female ovotestes were dimorphic in structure which represented a transitional stage in a protandrous sex change. Length at first sexual maturity of female A. latus was 24.40 cm. A. latus fed predominantly on bivalves, gastropods, cephalopods, stomatopods, fish and decapods which showed changes according to the season and body size. According to our results, it appears that A. latus feeds throughout the year; the highest value of gastrosomatic index (GaSI) for both sexes was recorded in February, which was significantly different from that in other months. The results of this study also indicate that feeding in yellowfin seabream is very intense before reproduction (during January and February). It decreases gradually after February to June during the spawning season.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-15
    Description: We quantified the distribution, abundance and assemblage structure of macrofauna at 22 stations in Gorgan Bay, seasonally in 2012-2013. Also, depth, temperature, salinity, DO, TOM and sediment particle size were measured in each station. The highest concentration of TOM was measured near the western littoral zone (10.22) while the mouth part and north-eastern area was characterized by the lowest values (2.65 % and 4.69). A total of 31658 individuals belonging to 12 families and 14 species were identified. Polychaeta with 3 species was the most dominant group in terms of abundance. The four most abundant taxa making up 85% of all specimens were Streblospio gynobranchiata, Tubificidae, Hediste diversicolor and Abra segmentum. The maximum density (7,893 ind/m^2) was obtained at station 1 while the minimum (1,777 ind/m^2) was observed at station 16. The western area was characterized by the highest species diversity (H', 1.94) and the stations 10, 8 and 7 were characterized by the lowest diversity indices (H', 0.72, 0.77 and 0.87, respectively). The PCA showed that water parameters with more temporary variations had a greater significance in explaining the system variability, and a not marked but evident difference between the two parts of Gorgan Bay was observed and supported by nmMDS test. So Gorgan Bay presents transitional macrobenthic assemblages that are spatially distributed along substrate gradients but it seems that the coastal ecosystem of the south Caspian Sea and mouth-eastern part of Gorgan Bay is very dynamic and some species are forming a metapopulation toward western sites.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Environment
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-19
    Description: The feeding habits and trophic level of Himantura gerrardi were studied according to sex and size classes of 80 individuals obtained using bottom trawl between May and December 2014 from the Oman Sea. Collected specimens were divided into three size classes (small〈38 cm, medium 38-58 cm and large〉58 cm) based on disk width. Prey was identified in seven main zoological categories, where crustacean and polychaetes were the dominant in diets, indicating this species is a demersal dwelling species. No significant differences were observed between sexes, but size classes showed significant differences in their diets. Also, results showed a decrease in feeding overlap between size classes with an increase in disk width, suggesting that intraspecific competition reduced, which allows the coexistence of different size classes. Trophic level was positively correlated with the disk width, which was lower than 4.0 for both sexes and different size classes, placing it in an intermediate trophic level.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-19
    Description: Reef-building coral harbor communities of photosynthetic taxa of the genus Symbiodinium (zooxanthellae). The genus Symbiodinium is currently classified into nine genetic clades (A–I). Various corals harbor different Symbiodinium clades; some show specificity to a single strain. Coral and their zooxanthellae are sensitive to environmental stresses. In the Persian Gulf, coral reefs are subject to harsh environmental conditions including extreme temperatures and high salinity. This is the first study to use clade specific primers to clarify the diversity of Symbiodinium in each coral species of Larak Island. For this purpose six coral species were collected at two different locations in Larak Island. After DNA extraction, PCR amplification was performed using clade specific primers. The results showed that multiple Symbiodinium clades are hosted by most coral species. In addition, among thirteen obtained Symbiodinium sequences, the frequency of either tree [sic] clades, A, C and D was almost the same. Corals species may contain different clades of Symbiodinium depending on the region and on the tolerance characteristics of each clade. Thus, knowledge of zooxanthellae diversity associated with scleractinian can contribute to a better understanding of the sensitivity of corals to environmental conditions.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-19
    Description: Marine benthic macrophytes (seaweed and seagrasses) are key structural and functional components of some of the most productive ecosystems of the world. They absorb nutrients through their surface directly from the marine environment and thus they are very important biological elements for the estimation of ecological status, representing reliable indicators of coastal waters. The aim of this study was to assess the ecological status and trophic level of Hormozgan rocky bottoms according to Ecological Evaluation Index (EEI). Sampling was done bi-monthly at seven stations at the intertidal rocky shores, west of Hormozgan Province. In this study a total of 63 species were identified, of which 15 species from seven genera belonged to green algae; 16 species from five genera belonged to brown algae; and 32 species from nine genera belonged to red algae. Coverage data of macroalgae and EEI indicate a high level of eutrophication for Saieh khosh, and Bostaneh. They are classified as zones with bad and poor ecological status, respectively. Also it has been proved that concentrations of biogenic elements and phytoplankton blooming are higher in these zones. The best values of the estimated metrics at Tahooneh and Michaeil could be explained with the good ecological conditions in those zones and the absence of pollution sources close to those transects. The values of abundance of macroalgae and EEI indicate moderate ecological conditions for Koohin, Lengeh and Chirooieh.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Environment
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-11-16
    Description: Sampling was done from March 2012 until January 2013 from 7 locations. In this study, a total of 75 species of seaweeds (macroalgea) were identified, 17 of which were green algal species from 9 genera and 6 families; 18 were brown algal species from 7 genera and 4 families; and 40 species were red algae from 18 genera and 11 families. Sampling determined that Lengeh harbor, with 6 species, had the lowest diversity of green algae. Brown algae species diversity at Michael’s location was the highest with 10 species each; and Tahooneh had the lowest amount of species diversity with 5 species. Red algae species diversity at Michael’s location was the the highest with 28 species, and Sayeh Khosh had the lowest diversity with 13 species. The coverage data of macroalgae and the Ecological Evaluation Index indicated a high level of eutrophication for Sayeh Khosh, and Bostaneh. They are classified as zones with a bad and poor ecological status. It was proven that concentrations of biogenic elements and phytoplankton blooming were higher in these zones. The best values of the estimated metrics at Tahooneh and Michael’s could be explained with the good ecological conditions in those zones and the absence of pollution sources close to that transect. The values of the abundance of macroalgae and the Ecological Evaluation Index indicate moderate ecological conditions for Koohin, Lengeh and Chirooieh.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-05-21
    Description: Scatophagus argus argus (Green Scat) is a pretty aquarium fish. Its hard spines are venomous and can cause painful injury. In this study 60 specimens of Green Scat were collected periodically from coastal waters of Boushehr (south of Iran) from May 2011 to April 2012. Anatomical features of venomous spines were investigated. Scat venom was extracted from the spines in a new manner for keeping the specimens alive. The nature of venom was tested by SDS-PAGE. Ethical issues and animal welfare principles such as rapid and instantaneous anesthetizing, post operation disinfection and fast recovery of the specimens was practiced in order to minimize the complications. This method enhanced the purity and quantity of venom as demonstrated by 12 separated proteins in electrophoresis. New ethical issues were developed to surviving the specimens and prolong viability as well.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries ; Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Dasyatidae is primarily a marine subfamily, which is most common in shallow tropical waters. The species of this family are distributed worldwide; from tropical to warm temperate; Atlantic (Including the Mediterranean Sea), the Indian, and Pacific Ocean. Six genera, Dasyatis (synonyms Trygon and Urolophoides), Himantura, Pastinachus (synonym Hypolophus), Pteroplatytrygon, Taeniura, and Urogymnus, with about 68 species are included in this family. In the Persian Gulf, some members of family Dasyatidae are important species in terms of number and biomass. This family is represented by three genera (Dasyatis, Himantura and Pastinachus) and seven species, although they have been frequently confused by forms and colors. ... In this study, first report of H. granulata from the northern Persian Gulf with some morphometric measurements is given.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-07-20
    Description: The population genetic structure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was examined on 260 specimens from Tajan and Gorgan Rivers, Gorgan Gulf, Anzali Lagoon and other regions in east, middle and west of south Caspian Sea. DNA was extracted from fin tissue by phenol-chlorophorm method with a concentration of 50-100 nanograms. PCR was performed using ND-3/4 and ND-5/6 genes. The PCR products of samples were digested by 15 restriction endonuclease enzymes. The digested products accompanied with standard marker (50 pb). To measure fragment size, samples were run on a 6% vertical poyacrylamide gel. The fragments were visualized by silver staining of the polyacrylamide gel. Statistical analysis of data was performed by Reap software. We detected 14 and 12 different haplotypes in ND-3/4 and ND-5/6 genes of common carp. The mean values of haplotype diversity among populations were 0.59 and 0.48 and the average nucleotide diversity was 0.06 and 0.03 for ND3/4 and ND5/6 genes. Also, the mean values of nucleotide divergence among populations were 0.05% and 0.02%, respectively. The haplotype distribution was not significantly different between Mazandaran and Guilan coasts, Mazandaran and Golestan coasts, Golestan coast and Gorgan Gulf and Gorgan River (P〈0.05), but this divergence was significantly different between Guilan region and Anzali Lagoon, Guilan and Golestan coasts, Tajan and Gorgan Rivers (P〈0.05). We found a significant genetic divergence between some of the samples such that three genetic groups of common carp were identified in the southern part of the Caspian Sea.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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