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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: We propose to develop a new mission to Titan called Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM). This mission is motivated by the recent discoveries of Titan, its atmosphere and its surface by the Huygens Probe, and a combination of in situ, remote sensing and radar mapping measurements of Titan by the Cassini orbiter. Titan is a body for which Astrobiology (i.e., prebiotic chemistry) will be the primary science goal of any future missions to it. TOAM is planned to use an orbiter and balloon technology (i.e., aerorover). Aerobraking will be used to put payload into orbit around Titan. One could also use aerobraking to put spacecraft into orbit around Saturn first for an Enceladus phase of the mission and then later use aerocapture to put spacecraft into orbit around Titan. The Aerorover will probably use a hot air balloon concept using the waste heat from the MMRTG approx. 1000 watts. Orbiter support for the Aerorover is unique to our approach for Titan. Our strategy to use an orbiter is contrary to some studies using just a single probe with balloon. Autonomous operation and navigation of the Aerorover around Titan will be required, which will include descent near to the surface to collect surface samples for analysis (i.e., touch and go technique). The orbiter can provide both relay station and GPS roles for the Aerorover. The Aerorover will have all the instruments needed to sample Titan's atmosphere, surface, possible methane lakes-rivers, use multi-spectral imagers for surface reconnaissance; to take close up surface images; take core samples and deploy seismometers during landing phase. Both active and passive broadband remote sensing techniques will be used for surface topography, winds and composition measurements.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: Titan Workshop; Feb 14, 2007 - Feb 15, 2007; Paris; France
    Format: text
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The magnetic field experiment on WIND will provide data for studies of a broad range of scales of structures and fluctuation characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field throughout the mission, and, where appropriate, relate them to the statics and dynamics of the magnetosphere. The basic instrument of the Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) is a boom-mounted dual triaxial fluxgate magnetometer and associated electronics. The dual configuration provides redundancy and also permits accurate removal of the dipolar portion of the spacecraft magnetic field. The instrument provides (1) near real-time data at nominally one vector per 92 s as key parameter data for broad dissemination, (2) rapid data at 10.9 vectors s−1 for standard analysis, and (3) occasionally, snapshot (SS) memory data and Fast Fourier Transform data (FFT), both based on 44 vectors s−1. These measurements will be precise (0.025%), accurate, ultra-sensitive (0.008 nT/step quantization), and where the sensor noise level is 〈0.006 nT r.m.s. for 0–10 Hz. The digital processing unit utilizes a 12-bit microprocessor controlled analogue-to-digital converter. The instrument features a very wide dynamic range of measurement capability, from ±4 nT up to ±65 536 nT per axis in eight discrete ranges. (The upper range permits complete testing in the Earth's field.) In the FTT mode power spectral density elements are transmitted to the ground as fast as once every 23 s (high rate), and 2.7 min of SS memory time series data, triggered automatically by pre-set command, requires typically about 5.1 hours for transmission. Standard data products are expected to be the following vector field averages: 0.0227-s (detail data from SS), 0.092 s (‘detail’ in standard mode), 3 s, 1 min, and 1 hour, in both GSE and GSM coordinates, as well as the FFT spectral elements. As has been our team's tradition, high instrument reliability is obtained by the use of fully redundant systems and extremely conservative designs. We plan studies of the solar wind: (1) as a collisionless plasma laboratory, at all time scales, macro, meso and micro, but concentrating on the kinetic scale, the highest time resolution of the instrument (=0.022 s), (2) as a consequence of solar energy and mass output, (3) as an external source of plasma that can couple mass, momentum, and energy to the Earth's magnetosphere, and (4) as it is modified as a consequence of its imbedded field interacting with the moon. Since the GEOTAIL Inboard Magnetometer (GIM), which is similar to the MFI instrument, was developed by members of our team, we provide a brief discussion of GIM related science objectives, along with MFI related science goals.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-08-07
    Description: Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 143 (2018): 1223, doi:10.1121/1.5025042.
    Description: The ocean acoustic noise floor (observed when the overhead wind is low, ships are distant, and marine life silent) has been measured on an array extending up 987 m from 5048 m depth in the eastern North Pacific, in what is one of only a few recent measurements of the vertical noise distribution near the seafloor in the deep ocean. The floor is roughly independent of depth for 1–6 Hz, and the slope (∼ f−7) is consistent with Longuet-Higgins radiation from oppositely-directed surface waves. Above 6 Hz, the acoustic floor increases with frequency due to distant shipping before falling as ∼ f−2 from 40 to 800 Hz. The noise floor just above the seafloor is only about 5 dB greater than during the 1975 CHURCH OPAL experiment (50–200 Hz), even though these measurements are not subject to the same bathymetric blockage. The floor increases up the array by roughly 15 dB for 40–500 Hz. Immediately above the seafloor, the acoustic energy is concentrated in a narrow, horizontal beam that narrows as f−1 and has a beam width at 75 Hz that is less than the array resolution. The power in the beam falls more steeply with frequency than the omnidirectional spectrum.
    Description: The OBSANP cruise was funded by the Office of Naval Research under Grant Nos. N00014-10-1-0987, N00014-14- 1-0324, N00014-10-1-0510, and N00014-10-1-0990.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-12-21
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2016. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 46 (2016): 1705-1716, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-15-0221.1.
    Description: A rapid and broadband (1 h, 1 〈 f 〈 400 Hz) increase in pressure and vertical velocity on the deep ocean floor was observed on seven instruments comprising a 20-km array in the northeastern subtropical Pacific. The authors associate the jump with the passage of a cold front and focus on the 4- and 400-Hz spectra. At every station, the time of the jump is consistent with the front coming from the northwest. The apparent rate of progress, 10–20 km h−1 (2.8–5.6 m s−1), agrees with meteorological observations. The acoustic radiation below the front is modeled as arising from a moving half-plane of uncorrelated acoustic dipoles. The half-plane is preceded by a 10-km transition zone, over which the radiator strength increases linearly from zero. With this model, the time derivative of the jump at a station yields a second and independent estimate of the front’s speed, 8.5 km h−1 (2.4 m s−1). For the 4-Hz spectra, the source physics is taken to be Longuet-Higgins radiation. Its strength depends on the quantity , where Fζ is the wave amplitude power spectrum and I the overlap integral. Thus, the 1-h time constant observed in the bottom data implies a similar time constant for the growth of the wave field quantity behind the front. The spectra at 400 Hz have a similar time constant, but the jump occurs 25 min later. The implications of this difference for the source physics are uncertain.
    Description: The OBSANP cruise was funded by the Office of Naval Research under Grants N00014-10-1-0987, N00014-14-1-0324, N00014-10-1-0510, and N00014-10-1-0990.
    Keywords: Atm/Ocean Structure/ Phenomena ; Atmosphere-ocean interaction ; Cold fronts ; Marine boundary layer ; Sea state
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Limited single-spacecraft observations of Jupiter's magnetopause have been used to infer that the boundary moves inward or outward in response to variations in the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. At Earth, multiple-spacecraft observations have been implemented to understand the physics of ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Radio emissions from Jupiter provided the first evidence that this giant planet has a strong magnetic field and a large magnetosphere. Jupiter also has polar aurorae, which are similar in many respects to Earth's aurorae. The radio emissions are believed to be generated along the ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Saturn is a source of intense kilometre-wavelength radio emissions that are believed to be associated with its polar aurorae, and which provide an important remote diagnostic of its magnetospheric activity. Previous observations implied that the radio emission originated in the polar regions, ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The detection of impulsive low-frequency (10 to 80 kHz) radio signals, and separate very-low-frequency (∼100 Hz) radio ‘whistler’ signals provided the first evidence for lightning in the atmosphere of Venus. Later, a small number of impulsive high-frequency ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 217 (1968), S. 1034-1035 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Gromme, Merrill and Verhoogen2 critically examined the palaeomagnetic data for the Cretaceous of North America, presenting the results in the conventional manner as virtual geomagnetic poles (a VG-P is the pole of that unique axial dipole field which gives the observed magnetization at a given ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment detected a bursty, narrow-band radio emission originating in Neptune's magnetosphere. The time of occurrence of nearly all of the episodes of this bursty radio emission can be explained on the basis of a radio source located just above and to the east of the south magnetic offset tilted dipole (OTD) tip (Farrell et al., 1990). However, several episodes of bursty emission do not occur at the usual frequency and planetaray rotation phase for emissions of this type. The occurrences of these rarely seen anomalous episodes are shifted systematically in planetary longitude so as to be consistent with a source of emission to the southwest of the southern magnetic OTD pole. Owing to the proximity of these sources to the magnetic polar region, they are associated with an active auroral region. Therefore, at least from the standpoint of the radio emission, the picture that emerges is of an auroral zone with two emission hot spots approximately diametrically east and west of the south magnetic pole. The possibility of a complete radio-active auroral oval is discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 96; 1401-140
    Format: text
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