ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Well-known problems trouble coupled general circulation models of the eastern Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins. Model climates are significantly more symmetric about the equator than is observed. Model sea surface temperatures are biased warm south and southeast of the equator, and the atmosphere is too rainy within a band south of the equator. Near-coastal eastern equatorial SSTs are too warm, producing a zonal SST gradient in the Atlantic opposite in sign to that observed. The U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR) Eastern Tropical Ocean Synthesis Working Group (WG) has pursued an updated assessment of coupled model SST biases, focusing on the surface energy balance components, on regional error sources from clouds, deep convection, winds, and ocean eddies; on the sensitivity to model resolution; and on remote impacts. Motivated by the assessment, the WG makes the following recommendations: 1) encourage identification of the specific parameterizations contributing to the biases in individual models, as these can be model dependent; 2) restrict multimodel intercomparisons to specific processes; 3) encourage development of high-resolution coupled models with a concurrent emphasis on parameterization development of finer-scale ocean and atmosphere features, including low clouds; 4) encourage further availability of all surface flux components from buoys, for longer continuous time periods, in persistently cloudy regions; and 5) focus on the eastern basin coastal oceanic upwelling regions, where further opportunities for observational–modeling synergism exist.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 111 (2006): C05015, doi:10.1029/2005JC002989.
    Description: New in situ observations from 10°N, 125°W during 1997–1998 show strong intraseasonal variability in meridional velocity and sea surface temperature. The 50- to 100-day oscillations in sea surface height (SSH) have long been recognized as a prominent aspect of oceanic variability in the region of 9–13°N in the eastern Pacific Ocean. We use in situ and satellite data to more fully characterize this variability. The oscillations have zonal wavelengths of 550–1650 km and propagate westward in a manner consistent with the dispersion relation for first baroclinic mode, free Rossby waves in the presence of a mean westward flow. Analysis of 9 years of altimetry data shows that the amplitude of the 50- to 100-day SSH variability at 10°N is largest on 90–115°W, with peak amplitudes occurring around April. Some eddies traveling westward at 10–13°N emanate from near the gulfs of Tehuantepec and Papagayo, but eddies sometimes also appear to intensify well away from the coast while in the North Equatorial Current (NEC). The hypothesis that the intraseasonal variability and its annual cycle are associated with baroclinic instability of the NEC is supported by a spatiotemporal correlation between the amplitude of 50- to 100-day variability and the occurrence of westward zonal flows meeting an approximate necessary condition for baroclinic instability. The notion that baroclinic instability may be involved is further corroborated by the tendency of the NEC to weaken while the eddies intensify, even as the wind works to strengthen the current.
    Description: The authors gratefully acknowledge support for the fieldwork under the NOAA Office of Global Programs Pan American Climate Studies program (grants NA66GPO130 and NA96GPO428) and for analysis and publication (grants NA87RJ0445 and NA17RJ1223).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: The Ocean Reference Station at 20°S, 85°W under the stratus clouds west of northern Chile is being maintained to provide ongoing climate-quality records of surface meteorology (air-sea fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum), and of upper ocean temperature, salinity, and velocity variability. The Stratus Ocean Reference Station (ORS Stratus) is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Climate Observation Program. It is recovered and redeployed annually, with cruises between October and December. During the October 2007 cruise on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown to the ORS Stratus site, the primary activities were recovery of the Stratus 7 WHOI surface mooring that had been deployed in October 2006, deployment of a new (Stratus 8) WHOI surface mooring at that site; in-situ calibration of the buoy meteorological sensors by comparison with instrumentation put on board the ship by staff of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL); and observations of the stratus clouds and lower atmosphere by NOAA ESRL. Meteorological sensors on a buoy for the Pacific tsunami warning system were also serviced, in collaboration with the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA). The DART (Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami) carries IMET sensors and subsurface oceanographic instruments. A new DART II buoy was deployed north of the STRATUS buoy, by personnel from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) Argo floats and drifters were launched, and CTD casts carried out during the cruise. The ORS Stratus buoys are equipped with two Improved Meteorological (IMET) systems, which provide surface wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, incoming shortwave radiation, incoming longwave radiation, precipitation rate, and sea surface temperature. Additionally, the Stratus 8 buoy received a partial pressure of CO2 detector from the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL). IMET data are made available in near real time using satellite telemetry. The mooring line carries instruments to measure ocean salinity, temperature, and currents. The ESRL instrumentation used during the 2007 cruise included cloud radar, radiosonde balloons, and sensors for mean and turbulent surface meteorology. Finally, the cruise hosted a teacher participating in NOAA’s Teacher at Sea Program.
    Description: Funding was provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under Grant No. NA17RJ1223 for the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research (CICOR).
    Keywords: Marine meteorology ; Oceanography ; Ronald H. Brown (Ship) Cruise RB07-09
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-12-23
    Description: The Ocean Reference Station at 20°S, 85°W under the stratus clouds west of northern Chile is being maintained to provide ongoing climate-quality records of surface meteorology; air-sea fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum; and of upper ocean temperature, salinity, and velocity variability. The Stratus Ocean Reference Station (ORS Stratus) is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Climate Observation Program. It is recovered and redeployed annually, with cruises that have come between October and December. During the 2008 cruise on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown to the ORS Stratus site, the primary activities were recovery of the Stratus 8 WHOI surface mooring that had been deployed in October 2007, deployment of a new (Stratus 9) WHOI surface mooring at that site; in-situ calibration of the buoy meteorological sensors by comparison with instrumentation put on board by staff of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL); and observations of the stratus clouds and lower atmosphere by NOAA ESRL. A buoy for the Pacific tsunami warning system was also serviced in collaboration with the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA). The DART (Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami) carries IMET sensors and subsurface oceanographic instruments. A DART II buoy was deployed north of the STRATUS buoy, by personnel from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) Argo floats and drifters were launched, and CTD casts carried out during the cruise. The ORS Stratus buoys are equipped with two Improved Meteorological (IMET) systems, which provide surface wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, incoming shortwave radiation, incoming longwave radiation, precipitation rate, and sea surface temperature. Additionally, the Stratus 8 buoy received a partial CO2 detector from the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL). IMET data are made available in near real time using satellite telemetry. The mooring line carries instruments to measure ocean salinity, temperature, and currents. The ESRL instrumentation used during the 2008 cruise included cloud radar, radiosonde balloons, and sensors for mean and turbulent surface meteorology. Finally, the cruise hosted a teacher participating in NOAA’s Teacher at Sea Program.
    Description: Funding was provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under Grant No. NA17RJ1223 for the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Ocean Research (CICOR).
    Keywords: Ronald H. Brown (Ship) Cruise RB08-06 ; Marine meteorology ; Oceanography
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is being built near Thuwal, Saudi Arabia with the goal of becoming a world-class, graduate-level research university. As a step toward this goal, KAUST has partnered with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) to undertake various studies of the oceanography of the Red Sea in order to establish a research program in ocean sciences by the time the university opens its doors in the fall of 2009. Two of the KAUST-WHOI research projects involve deployment of surface moorings and associated instrumentation to measure physical properties of the Red Sea, such as temperature, salinity, and currents, at four locations off the coast of Saudi Arabia. The goal of these measurements is to better understand the evolution and dynamics of the circulation and air-sea interaction in the Red Sea. Two surface moorings and two bottom tripods (PI, Steven Lentz) were deployed at 50-55-m depth near 21°57'N, 38°46'E over the continental shelf close to the Saudi coast. An additional surface mooring/bottom tripod pair was deployed near 21°58'N, 38°50'E at the outer fringe of a reef system directly onshore of the shelf mooring/tripod pairs (PI, Lentz). The coastal moorings carry instruments to estimate temperature, salinity, and fluorescence; and the nearby bottom tripods support instruments to measure bottom pressure and the vertical profile of the currents. Additional instruments, principally bottom temperature sensors, were deployed over the reef system onshore of the shelf moorings. One air-sea interaction mooring (PI, J. Thomas Farrar) was deployed at 693-m depth near 22°10'N, 38°30'E. The air-sea interaction mooring carries instruments for measuring temperature, salinity, (water) velocity, winds, air temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, incident sunlight, infrared radiation, precipitation, and surface waves. A coastal meteorological tower was also installed on the KAUST campus in Thuwal (PI, Farrar). These measurements are of value because there are few time series of oceanographic and meteorological properties of the Red Sea that can be used to characterize the circulation, test numerical models of the Red Sea circulation, or formulate theoretical models of the physics of the Red Sea circulation. These measurements will permit a characterization of the Red Sea circulation with high temporal resolution at the mooring locations, and accurate in-situ estimates of the air-sea exchange of heat, freshwater, and momentum. In October 2008, a cruise was made aboard the R/V Oceanus to deploy the shelf and air-sea interaction moorings, and other fieldwork (e.g., tower instrumentation and deployment of reef instrumentation) was conducted after the cruise. Some additional data were collected during the cruise with shipboard instrumentation. This report documents the cruise and the data collected during the fall 2008 fieldwork.
    Description: Funding for this report was provided by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) under a cooperative research agreement with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 36 (2009): L19605, doi:10.1029/2009GL040008.
    Description: Mesoscale atmospheric modeling over the Red Sea, validated by in-situ meteorological buoy data, identifies two types of coastal mountain gap wind jets that frequently blow across the longitudinal axis of the Red Sea: (1) an eastward-blowing summer daily wind jet originating from the Tokar Gap on the Sudanese Red Sea coast, and (2) wintertime westward-blowing wind-jet bands along the northwestern Saudi Arabian coast, which occur every 10–20 days and can last for several days when occurring. Both wind jets can attain wind speeds over 15 m s−1 and contribute significantly to monthly mean surface wind stress, especially in the cross-axis components, which could be of importance to ocean eddy formation in the Red Sea. The wintertime wind jets can cause significant evaporation and ocean heat loss along the northeastern Red Sea coast and may potentially drive deep convection in that region. An initial characterization of these wind jets is presented.
    Description: Supported by Award Numbers USA 00001, USA 00002, and KSA 00011 made by KAUST.
    Keywords: Red Sea ; Coastal mountain gap wind jet ; Wind forcing
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: image/tiff
    Format: text/plain
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2011. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 41 (2011): 1160–1181, doi:10.1175/2011JPO4547.1.
    Description: Tropical instability waves are triggered by instabilities of the equatorial current systems, and their sea level signal, with peak amplitude near 5°N, is one of the most prominent features of the dynamic topography of the tropics. Cross-spectral analysis of satellite altimetry observations shows that there is sea level variability in the Pacific Ocean as far north as Hawaii (i.e., 20°N) that is coherent with the sea level variability near 5°N associated with tropical instability waves. Within the uncertainty of the analysis, this off-equatorial variability obeys the dispersion relation for nondivergent, barotropic Rossby waves over a fairly broad range of periods (26–38 days) and zonal wavelengths (9°–23° of longitude) that are associated with tropical instability waves. The dispersion relation and observed wave properties further suggest that the waves are carrying energy away from the instabilities toward the North Pacific subtropical gyre, which, together with the observed coherence of the sea level signal of the barotropic waves with that of the tropical instability waves, suggests that the barotropic Rossby waves are being radiated from the tropical instability waves. The poleward transport of kinetic energy and westward momentum by these barotropic Rossby waves may influence the circulation in the subtropics.
    Description: Funding for this research came from WHOI’s TropicalResearch Initiative, the Charles D. Hollister Fund for Assistant Scientist Support, the John E. and Anne W. Sawyer Endowed Fund in Special Support of Scientific Staff, and Grant OCE-0845150 from the National Science Foundation.
    Keywords: Barotropic flows ; Rossby waves ; Tropics ; Pacific Ocean ; Instability ; Waves, atmospheric
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 42 (2012): 1859–1881, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-11-0235.1.
    Description: In the 1970s and 1980s, there was considerable interest in near-equatorial variability at periods of days to weeks associated with oceanic equatorial inertia–gravity waves and mixed Rossby–gravity waves. At that time, the measurements available for studying these waves were much more limited than today: most of the available observations were from scattered island tide gauges and a handful of short mooring records. More than a decade of the extensive modern data record from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO)/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TRITON) mooring array in the Pacific Ocean is used to reexamine the internal-wave climate in the equatorial Pacific, with a focus on interpretation of the zonal-wavenumber/frequency spectrum of surface dynamic height relative to 500 decibars at periods of 3–15 days and zonal wavelengths exceeding 30° of longitude. To facilitate interpretation of the dynamic height spectrum and identification of equatorial wave modes, the spectrum is decomposed into separate spectra associated with dynamic height fluctuations that are symmetric or antisymmetric about the equator. Many equatorial-wave meridional modes can be identified, for both the first and second baroclinic mode. Zonal-wavenumber/frequency spectra of the zonal and meridional wind stress components are also examined. The observed wind stress spectra are used with linear theory of forced equatorial waves to provide a tentative explanation for the zonal-wavenumber extent of the spectral peaks seen in dynamic height. Examination of the cross-equatorial symmetry properties of the wind stress suggests that virtually all of the large-scale equatorial inertia–gravity and mixed Rossby–gravity waves examined may be sensitive to both zonal and meridional wind stress.
    Description: This research was funded by NASA Grant NNX10AO93G.
    Description: 2013-05-01
    Keywords: Inertia-gravity waves
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 42 (2012): 1834–1858, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-11-0234.1.
    Description: The theoretical resonant excitation of equatorial inertia–gravity waves and mixed Rossby–gravity waves is examined. Contrary to occasionally published expectations, solutions show that winds that are broadband in both zonal wavenumber and frequency do not in general produce peaks in the wavenumber–frequency spectrum of sea surface height (SSH) at wavenumbers associated with vanishing zonal group velocity. Excitation of total wave energy in inertia–gravity modes by broadband zonal winds is virtually wavenumber independent when the meridional structure of the winds does not impose a bias toward negative or positive zonal wavenumbers. With increasing wavenumber magnitude |k|, inertia–gravity waves asymptote toward zonally propagating pure gravity waves, in which the magnitude of meridional velocity υ becomes progressively smaller relative to the magnitude of zonal velocity u and pressure p. When the total wave energy is independent of wavenumber, this effect produces a peak in |υ|2 near the wavenumber where group velocity vanishes, but a trough in |p|2 (or SSH variance). Another consequence of the shift toward pure gravity wave structure is that broadband meridional winds excite inertia–gravity modes progressively less efficiently as |k| increases and υ becomes less important to the wave structure. Broadband meridional winds produce a low-wavenumber peak in total wave energy leading to a subtle elevation of |p|2 at low wavenumbers, but this is due entirely to the decrease in the forcing efficiency of meridional winds with increasing |k|, rather than to the vanishing of the group velocity. Physical conditions that might alter the above conclusions are discussed.
    Description: This research was funded by NASA Grant NNX10AO93G.
    Description: 2013-05-01
    Keywords: Inertia-gravity waves ; Ocean dynamics
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2013. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Continental Shelf Research 65 (2013): 1-13, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2013.05.017.
    Description: An unstructured grid, phase-averaged wave model forced with winds from a high resolution atmospheric model is used to evaluate wind wave conditions in the Red Sea over an approximately 2-year period. The Red Sea lies in a narrow rift valley, and the steep topography surrounding the basin steers the dominant wind patterns and consequently the wave climate. At large scales, the model results indicated that the primary seasonal variability in waves was due to the monsoonal wind reversal. During the winter, monsoon winds from the southeast generated waves with mean significant wave heights in excess of 2 m and mean periods of 8 s in the southern Red Sea, while in the northern part of the basin waves were smaller, shorter period, and from northwest. The zone of convergence of winds and waves typically occurred around 19-20˚N, but the location varied between 15 to 21.5˚N. During the summer, waves were generally smaller and from the northwest over most of the basin. While the seasonal winds oriented along the axis of the Red Sea drove much of the variability in the waves, the maximum wave heights in the simulations were not due to the monsoonal winds but instead were generated by localized mountain wind jets oriented across the basin (roughly east-west). During the summer, a mountain wind jet from the Tokar Gap enhanced the waves in the region of 18 and 20˚N, with monthly mean wave heights exceeding 2 m and maximum wave heights of 14 m during a period when the rest of the Red Sea was relatively calm. Smaller mountain gap wind jets along the northeast coast created large waves during the fall and winter, with a series of jets providing a dominant source of wave energy during these periods. Evaluation of the wave model results against observations from a buoy and satellites found that the spatial resolution of the wind model significantly affected the quality of the wave model results. Wind forcing from a 10-km grid produced higher skills for waves than winds from a 30-km grid, largely due to under-prediction of the mean wind speed and wave height with the coarser grid. The 30-km grid did not resolve the mountain gap wind jets, and thus predicted lower wave heights in the central Red Sea during the summer and along the northeast coast in the winter.
    Description: This research is based on work supported by Award No. USA00001, USA00002, KSA00011, made by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...