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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Glutamate oxalate transaminase ; Isozymes ; Nitrogen fixation ; Medicago sativa L. ; Rhizobium meliloti
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays a key role in the assimilation of fixed-N in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules. AAT activity in alfalfa nodules is due to the activity of two dimeric isozymes, AAT-1 and AAT-2, that are products of two distinct genes. Three forms of AAT-2 (AAT-2a, -2b, and-2c) have been identified. It was hypothesized that two alleles occur at the AAT-2 locus, giving rise to the three AAT-2 enzymes. In a prior study bidirectional selection for root nodule AAT and asparagine synthetase (AS) activities on a nodule fresh weight basis in two diverse alfalfa germ plasms resulted in high nodule enzyme activity subpopulations with about 20% more nodule AAT activity than low enzyme activity subpopulations. The objectives of the study presented here were to determine the inheritance of nodule AAT-2 production and to evaluate the effect of bidirectional selection for AAT and AS on AAT-2 allelic frequencies, the relative contributions of AAT-1 and AAT-2 to total nodule activity, nodule enzyme concentration, and correlated traits. Two alleles at the AAT-2 locus were verified by evaluating segregation of isozyme phenotypes among F1 and S1 progeny of crosses or selfs. Characterization of subpopulations for responses associated with selection was conducted using immunoprecipitation of in vitro nodule AAT activity, quantification of AAT enzyme protein by ELISA, and AAT activity staining of native isozymes on PAGE. Results indicate that selection for total AAT activity specifically altered the expression of the nodule AAT-2 isozyme. AAT-2 activity was significantly greater in high compared to low activity subpopulations, and high AAT subpopulations from both germ plasms had about 18% more AAT-2 enzyme (on a nodule fresh weight basis). No significant or consistent changes in AAT-2 genotypic frequencies in subpopulations were caused by selection for AAT activity. Since changes in AAT activity were not associated with changes in AAT-2 genotype, selection must have affected a change(s) at another locus (or loci), which indirectly effects the expression of nodule AAT.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant breeding 118 (1999), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The use of microspore or anther culture to generate doubled-haploids (DH) is an important adjunct to broccoli breeding) Regenerated populations from broccoli anther culture are usually mixtures of ploidy. However, ploidy composition of populations derived from microspore culture has not been reported. The purpose of the present study was to characterize regenerants derived from microspore culture, to evaluate factors influencing these characteristics and to compare results with those from anther culture. Eight populations, four from each culture method, were generated simultaneously using the same four F1 hybrids as donor parents. The ploidy level of all regenerants was determined by DNA flow cytometry: the majority of them were diploid. As in anther culture, a mixture of ploidy was observed in all populations derived from microspore culture. Ploidy variation was more frequent among clonal families from anther culture (10%) than microspore culture (5%)‘Everest’ was the most productive donor parent with both methods, while ‘Greenbelt’ and ‘Major’ were least productive in anther and microspore culture, respectively. Genotype specificity for the total number of regenerated plants and ploidy composition occurred in both culture methods.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Broccoli is well recognized as a source of glucosinolates and their isothiocyanate breakdown products. Glucoraphanin is one of the most abundant glucosinolates present in broccoli and its cognate isothiocyanate is sulphoraphane, a potent inducer of mammalian detoxication (phase 2) enzyme activity and anti-cancer agent. This study was designed to measure: glucosinolate levels in broccoli florets from an array of genotypes grown in several environments; the elevation of a key phase 2 enzyme, quinone reductase, in mammalian cells exposed to floret extracts; and total broccoli head content. There were significant environmental and genotype-by-environment effects on levels of glucoraphanin and quinone reductase induction potential of broccoli heads; however, the effect of genotype was greater than that of environmental factors. The relative rankings among genotypes for glucoraphanin and quinone reductase induction potential changed, when expressed on a per head basis, rather than on a concentration basis. Correlations of trait means in one environment vs. means from a second were stronger for glucoraphanin and quinone reductase induction potential on a per head basis than on a fresh weight concentration basis. Results of this study indicate that development of a broccoli phenotype with a dense head and a high concentration of glucoraphanin to deliver maximum chemoprotective potential (high enzyme induction potential/glucoraphanin content) is a feasible goal.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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