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  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The surface restricted transient grating is demonstrated as a sensitive probe of ultrafast surface reaction dynamics. Studies of doped single crystal n-TiO2 (001) surfaces in air demonstrate linear trapping processes, assigned to crystal defects within the surface deformation layer, that limit carrier lifetimes to 5 ns. Direct in situ grating studies at photochemically active n-TiO2/H2O interfaces demonstrate that the dominant mechanism of interfacial electron transfer in this system involves thermalized hole carriers at the atomic surface. The dynamics are consistent with adsorbed OH− as the initial hole acceptor. In addition, optical generation of coherent surface acoustic modes is demonstrated. A detailed theory is presented for the grating excitation of the surface acoustics. Acoustic propagation in the H2O half-space of the TiO2/H2O liquid interface gives evidence for a phase change of the water layer at the polar TiO2 (001) surface to a solid phase.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Inventiones mathematicae 68 (1982), S. 441-475 
    ISSN: 1432-1297
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Inventiones mathematicae 60 (1980), S. 135-172 
    ISSN: 1432-1297
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mathematische Annalen 226 (1977), S. 121-123 
    ISSN: 1432-1807
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Solid State Communications 67 (1988), S. 823-826 
    ISSN: 0038-1098
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-07-27
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 2431: Disaster Management System Aided by Named Data Network of Things: Architecture, Design, and Analysis Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18082431 Authors: Abdul Hannan Sobia Arshad Muhammad Awais Azam Jonathan Loo Syed Hassan Ahmed Muhammad Faran Majeed Sayed Chhattan Shah Disasters are the uncertain calamities which within no time can change the situation quite drastically. They not only affect the system’s infrastructure but can also put an adverse effect on human life. A large chunk of the IP-based Internet of Things (IoT) schemes tackle disasters such as fire, earthquake, and flood. Moreover, recently proposed Named Data Networking (NDN) architecture exhibited promising results for IoT as compare to IP-based approaches. Therefore to tackle disaster management system (DMS), it is needed to explore it through NDN architecture and this is the main motivation behind this work. In this research, a NDN based IoT-DMS (fire disaster) architecture is proposed, named as NDN-DISCA. In NDN-DISCA, NDN producer pushes emergency content towards nearby consumers. To provide push support, Beacon Alert Message (BAM) is created using fixed sequence number. NDN-DISCA is simulated in ndnSIM considering the disaster scenario of IoT-based smart campus (SC). From results, it is found that NDN-DISCA exhibits minimal delay and improved throughput when compared to the legacy NDN and existing PUSH schemes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-01-03
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 99: Renewable Energy Assisted Traffic Aware Cellular Base Station Energy Cooperation Energies doi: 10.3390/en11010099 Authors: Faran Ahmed Muhammad Naeem Waleed Ejaz Muhammad Iqbal Alagan Anpalagan Hyung Kim With global concern for climate change, and for cutting down the energy cost, especially in off grid areas, use of renewable energy has been gaining widespread attention in many areas including cellular communication. The base station (BS) has emerged as a strong candidate for the integration of renewable energy sources (RES), particularly solar and wind. The incorporation of renewable energy opens many possibilities for energy conservation through strategies such as energy cooperation between BSs during the off-peak hours, when the energy harvested from renewable energy sources may become surplus. In this paper, we present the case for cellular BSs enabled with renewable energy sources (RES) to have an arrangement in which the BS provide surplus energy to a neighboring BS, thus minimizing the use of conventional energy. A realistic objective is developed for northern region of Pakistan, which entails modeling of solar panels and wind-turbine according to the average solar irradiation and wind speed of the region. We also model the dynamic load of the BS, which depicts temporal fluctuations with traffic variations. Based on these models we initiate an energy cooperation scheme between the BS in which an energy cost minimization framework is mathematically modeled and solved through the interior point method algorithm. Results are obtained for different times of the year for different number of base stations showing respective energy cost savings.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-01-13
    Description: Author(s): Noam Zreihan, Eilon Faran, Eduard Vives, Antoni Planes, and Doron Shilo It is generally claimed that physical processes which display scale-invariant power-law distributions are subjected to a dynamic criticality that prohibits a well-defined kinetic law. In this paper, we demonstrate the coexistence of these two apparently contradicting behaviors during the same physic... [Phys. Rev. B 97, 014103] Published Fri Jan 12, 2018
    Keywords: Structure, structural phase transitions, mechanical properties, defects
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-08-18
    Description: A wide variety of physical systems respond to changing external conditions through discrete impulsive events called jerks, typically leading to collective “crackling noise” behaviour. Statistical distributions of jerky events often exhibit a universal scale-invariant power law, regardless of the specific mechanisms that are responsible for crackling noise processes and microstructural features that affect them. Here, we analyse uniaxial compression loading curves of two different physical systems that exhibit jerky behaviour: a martensitic NiMnGa single crystal and a stack of corrugated fiberboards. The jerky response is attributed to a non-uniform twin boundary motion along the NiMnGa crystal and to a local buckling of individual fiberboard layers. In both cases, our analysis reveals that different variables exhibit different statistical distributions. While the velocity of temporal processes within jerky events exhibits scale invariant distribution, the irreversible displacements induced throughout complete events are distributed around a characteristic value. In the case of NiMnGa, the displacement of a twin boundary is directly related to the length-scale of the internal magneto-mechanical microstructure. Similarly, the displacement of the fiberboard stack corresponds to the thickness of individual board layers. These observations reveal the effect of the internal microstructure on crackling noise systems and demonstrate an analysis approach for uncovering the details of the jerk mechanism.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-10-27
    Description: Martensitic phase transformations often exhibit crackling noise response of the emitted energy. This type of behavior implies that the phase transformation proceeds through numerous events that do not exhibit any characteristic scale. On the other hand, the twinned microstructure along the phase boundary exhibits a characteristic size that is expected to affect the propagation of the phase boundary. Here, we present a statistical analysis of jerky events during martensitic transformation, induced by uniaxial compression of a single crystal Cu-Al-Ni. The results indicate that the characteristic length scale of the internal twinned microstructure dictates μ m -scale displacement events of the phase boundary. At the same time, each of these μ m -scale events proceeds through a multitude of smaller events that span several orders of magnitude and follow a scale-invariant power law distribution. The smaller events are associated with the local nucleation and propagation of twinning interfaces close to the phase boundary.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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