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  • 1
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    AGU
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research, 80 (21). pp. 3013-3031.
    Publication Date: 2019-05-07
    Description: A model for interstitial silica concentrations is derived, incorporating biological mixing of sediments. This model predicts concentrations and gradients and can account for the observed geographical variations in interstitial silica on the basis of a dynamic balance between solution of silica particles and diffusion from the sediments. The flux of particulate biogenous silica into the sediments is confirmed as an important parameter controlling interstitial silica concentrations. Biological mixing of sea floor sediments also has an important influence on interstitial composition by modifyirig the depth at which dissolving particles react. Faster mixing raises the interstitial concentration. The rate at which siliceous particles dissolve also plays a role; the slower they dissolve, the greater the interstitial silica concentration. Measurements on near‐bottom waters of the Atlantic show no consistent gradients in dissolved silica, but antarctic bottom water seems significantly more variable in the benthic boundary layer than in the water mass above or in the benthic zone of North Atlantic deep water.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2056
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary An ice microflora community collected from the bottom of seasonal pack-ice off the Amery Ice Shelf, Antarctica, was grown at salinities which varied from 11.5‰ to 34‰. The response exhibited by the community and by individual species was characterized by an initial lag phase-adaptation period followed by a short period of exponential growth. Doubling rates based on changes in chlorophyll a had a range from 0.05 to 0.23 day-1 during the time required to reach maximum chlorophyll a concentration and a range of 0.04 to 0.42 day-1 during a period of exponential growth. Exponential growth rates of individual species ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 doublings day-1. Growth occurred at all salinities above 11.5‰. Community growth rates increased with increasing salinity, and the growth-salinity response of most species was shifted toward higher salinities suggesting that this Antarctic ice microalgal community was adapted to the ambient salinity regime: 34‰.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The North Atlantic Ocean receives the largest allochthonous supplies of nitrogen of any ocean basin because of the close proximity of industrialized nations. In this paper, we describe the major standing stocks, fluxes and transformations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the pelagic regions of the North Atlantic, as one part of a larger effort to understand the entire N and P budgets in the North Atlantic Ocean, its watersheds and overlying atmosphere. The primary focus is on nitrogen, however, we consider both nitrogen and phosphorus because of the close inter-relationship between the N and P cycles in the ocean. The oceanic standing stocks of N and P are orders of magnitude larger than the annual amount transported off continents or deposited from the atmosphere. Atmospheric deposition can have an impact on oceanic nitrogen cycling at locations near the coasts where atmospheric sources are large, or in the centers of the highly stratified gyres where little nitrate is supplied to the surface by vertical mixing of the ocean. All of the reactive nitrogen transported to the coasts in rivers is denitrified or buried in the estuaries or on the continental shelves and an oceanic source of nitrate of 0.7–0.95 × 1012 moles NO 3 −1 y−1 is required to supply the remainder of the shelf denitrification (Nixon et al., this volume). The horizontal fluxes of nitrate caused by the ocean circulation are both large and uncertain. Even the sign of the transport across the equator is uncertain and this precludes a conclusion on whether the North Atlantic Ocean as a whole is a net source or sink of nitrate. We identify a source of nitrate of 3.7–6.4 × 1012 moles NO 3 − y−1 within the main thermocline of the Sargasso Sea that we infer is caused by nitrogen fixation. This nitrate source may explain the nitrate divergence observed by Rintoul & Wunsch (1991) in the mid-latitude gyre. The magnitude of nitrogen fixation inferred from this nitrate source would exceed previous estimates of global nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen fixation requires substantial quantities of iron as a micro-nutrient and the calculated iron requirement is comparable to the rates supplied by the deposition of iron associated with Saharan dust. Interannual variability in dust inputs is large and could cause comparable signals in the nitrogen fixation rate. The balance of the fluxes across the basin boundaries suggest that the total stocks of nitrate and phosphate in the North Atlantic may be increasing on time-scales of centuries. Some of the imbalance is related to the inferred nitrogen fixation in the gyre and the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, both of which may be influenced by human activities. However, the fluxes of dissolved organic nutrients are almost completely unknown and they have the potential to alter our perception of the overall mass balance of the North Atlantic Ocean.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-11-21
    Description: Over the last few decades, rising greenhouse gas emissions have promoted poleward expansion of the large-scale atmospheric Hadley circulation that dominates the Tropics, thereby affecting behavior of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Expression of these changes in tropical marine ecosystems is poorly understood because of...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-02-09
    Description: The Pioneer core complex (PCC) in central Idaho lies along a transition between Early Eocene and ca. ≤40 Ma core complexes to the north and south, respectively. Thus, the age of extensional development of the PCC is important in understanding the spatial-temporal patterns of core-complex development in the North American Cordillera. New results, including structural observations and U-Pb zircon (SHRIMP and ICPMS) geochronology, constrain the early extensional history of the footwall for the first time. High-temperature strain with a top-WNW shear-sense is pervasive throughout metamorphic rocks of the northwestern footwall. An isoclinally folded dike yields a crystallization age of ∼48–47 Ma, whereas a crosscutting dike yielded an age of 46 Ma. Metamorphic rocks are also intruded by the ∼50–48 Ma Pioneer intrusive suite (PIS), a W-dipping granodiorite sheet displaying a magmatic fabric. Northwest-trending lineations are locally visible and also defined by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, indicating that during emplacement, the PIS was undergoing similarly oriented extensional strain as the enclosing metamorphic rocks. Therefore, WNW-directed extension spanning this structural section occurred between ∼50 and 46 Ma. Following emplacement of crosscutting 46 Ma dikes, deformation was partitioned into the WNW-directed Wildhorse detachment. Motion on the detachment occurred between ∼38 and 33 Ma, as documented by previous 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology. It is not clear, however, whether extension was continuous through the interval between these two time periods. Although Early Eocene extension in the PCC was synchronous with extension in core complexes to the north, rates of footwall exhumation in central Idaho were much lower. This southward slowing is compatible with N-S differences in inferred subduction zone geometry/kinematics and in the internal character of the orogenic wedge.
    Print ISSN: 0278-7407
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-9194
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-03-18
    Description: Although silica is a key plant nutrient there have been few studies aimed at understanding the Si cycle in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). Here we use a combination of new measurements and literature values to explain the silicic acid distribution across the basin and to calculate a silica budget to identify the key controlling processes. The surface water concentration of ~ 1 μM, which is unchanging seasonally across the basin was due to the inflow of Western Mediterranean Sea (WMS) water at the Straits of Sicily. It does not change seasonally because there is only a sparse population of diatoms due to the low nutrient (N and P) supply to the photic zone in the EMS. The concentration of silicic acid in the deep water of the western Ionian Sea (6.3 μM) close to the S. Adriatic area of formation was due to the preformed silicic acid (3 μM) plus biogenic silica (BSi) from the dissolution of diatoms from the winter phytoplankton bloom (3.2 μM). The increase of 4.4 μM across the deep water of the EMS was due to silicic acid formed from in-situ diagenetic weathering of alumina-silicate minerals fluxing out of the sediment. The major inputs to the EMS are silicic acid and BSi inflowing from the western Mediterranean (121 × 109 mol Si year−1 silicic acid and 16 × 109 mol Si year−1 BSi), silicic acid fluxing from the sediment (54 × 109 mol Si year−1), riverine (27 × 109 mol Si year−1) and subterranean ground water (9.7 × 109 mol Si year−1) inputs, with only a minor direct input from dissolution of dust in the water column (1 × 109 mol Si year−1). This budget shows the importance of rapidly dissolving BSi and in-situ weathering of alumino-silicate minerals as sources of silica to balance the net export of silicic acid at the Straits of Sicily. Future measurements to improve the accuracy of this preliminary budget have been identified.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-08-12
    Description: Although silica is a key plant nutrient, there have been few studies aimed at understanding the Si cycle in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). Here we use a combination of new measurements and literature values to explain the silicic acid distribution across the basin and to calculate a silica budget to identify the key controlling processes. The surface water concentration of ∼1 μM, which is unchanging seasonally across the basin, was due to the inflow of western Mediterranean Sea (WMS) water at the Straits of Sicily. It does not change seasonally because there is only a sparse population of diatoms due to the low nutrient (N and P) supply to the photic zone in the EMS. The concentration of silicic acid in the deep water of the western Ionian Sea (6.3 μM) close to the S Adriatic are an of formation was due to the preformed silicic acid (3 μM) plus biogenic silica (BSi) from the dissolution of diatoms from the winter phytoplankton bloom (3.2 μM). The increase of 4.4 μM across the deep water of the EMS was due to silicic acid formed from in situ diagenetic weathering of aluminosilicate minerals fluxing out of the sediment. The major inputs to the EMS are silicic acid and BSi inflowing from the western Mediterranean (121 × 109 mol Si yr−1 silicic acid and 16 × 109 mol Si yr−1 BSi), silicic acid fluxing from the sediment (54 × 109 mol Si yr−1) and riverine (27 × 109 mol Si yr−1) and subterranean groundwater (9.7 × 109 mol Si yr−1) inputs, with only a minor direct input from dissolution of dust in the water column (1 × 109 mol Si yr−1). This budget shows the importance of rapidly dissolving BSi and in situ weathering of aluminosilicate minerals as sources of silica to balance the net export of silicic acid at the Straits of Sicily. Future measurements to improve the accuracy of this preliminary budget have been identified.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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