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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
    Description: Various Problems in front of shrimp culture, mainly in biological fields and restrictions of production cycle, emphasized the species diversity in aquaculture industry of Iran in fourth socio- economic development plan of fisheries department. By this means, the Iranian Fisheries Research Organization, defined a Programme with four sub- projects, and started the activities on beginning of 2004. On the year 2004, 80 pairs of SPF/SPR Litopenaeus vannamei broodstocks imported from Hawaii, but late importation and prolonged acclimatization period, caused propogation and PL production on mid-September. Despite of terminated culture season, some PL's stocked in earthen ponds of Helleh site in Bushehr province. Results of this phase showed that, L.vannamei could support the cold winter of about 9 C temperature and about 20000 broodstocks harvested at the next year. At the next year, 55 pairs of SPF/SPR broodstocks imported by the same way, and after production of PL in Bandargah hatchery, the farming carried out in Helleh research earthen ponds. At this year, shrimp farms of Bushehr province infected with WSSV, but L.vannamei growth was very good, and gained more than19g after 90days farming. On the year 2006, the farming pilot project repeated, and the way for extension smoothed. In a parallel action, introduction of L.vannamei to Choebdeh site (Khouzestan province) showed remarkable results after 5 years collapses by WSSV. The results of broodstocking, breeding and farming research projects transferred very soon to shrimp producers, as the production of L.vannamei in Khouzestan and Bushehr provinces raised to 2575tons in the year 2008. In addition the condition for introduction of this species to Golestan province smoothed on 2008, and stocking at rate of 5-6 individuals per m2 in earthen ponds of Gomishan resulted in 20g. Shrimp weight after 75 days culture. This stock used as brood stock for commercial production on 2009 by private sector. It seems that all four southern provinces are going to utilize L.vannamei as the main species in 2009, and domesticated brood stocks.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Cochlodinium is a dinoflagel that, with their bloom in the coastal water of worlds, can case fish mortality. Cochlodinium was detected in Persian Gulf, since 2008. After purification of C. polykricoides with light, the culture of cochlodinium, with medium of f/2 (modified), Guilard (f/2-Si), TMRL, Conway, ESM and the mixed of sea shore sediment with salt water (32 ppt) was done. The culture of cochlodinium in test tube, erlanmeyer with volume of 200-1000 ml and aquariums with the volume of 16 liter (each with 10 liter water) with three replicates in each treatment were done. Only the culture of cochlodinium with f/2 (modyfied) was possible in the aquarium. The culture of cochlodinium with TMRL medium in aquarium was not desirable and only in one aquarium from 3 aquariums, the density of cochlodinium reached to 910.000. cell per liter. The use of f/2 (modyfied) medium in the test tubes, and erlanmeyers, with the volume of 100-1000 ml, lead to suitable cochlodinium bloom. The maximum cell density in total treatments (with 3 replicates in each treatment) in test tube 3.283.000. cell (in 15 days), in erlanmeyer with 200 ml volume, 6.393.000. cells (in 22 days), in erlanmeyer with 500 ml volume, 2.833.000. cells (in 40 days) and in aquarium 3.600 .000. cells (in 46 days) counted. Cochlodinium culture with TMRL Medium in test tube and erlanmeyer was done successfully, but with the increase of erlanmeyer volume, the blooms of cochlodinium was lesser than f/2 (modyfied) medium. The maximum of cell count of TMRL Medium in test tube 2.683.000. cells (in 12 days), in erlanmeyer with 100 ml volume, 3.207.000. cells (in 36 days), in erlanmeyer with 250 ml 3.040.000. cells (in 18 days), in erlan with 1000 ml 2.325.000. cells (in 34 days) and in aquarium 550.000. cells (in 28 days) in each litre. Unsuccessful culture of cochlodinium with Conway medium, Gyllard (f/2-Si) and mixed salt water (32 ppt) with sea shore sediments, even in the test tube, indicated that these mediums weren’t suitablefor copchlodinium culture. With the increase of erlanmeyer volume, the success of ESM medium decreased. But, in test tube and in erlanmeye with 100 ml volum, was almost, successful. We can concluded that, cochlodinium culture required, special condition and medium, that in f/2 (modyfied) medium the culture of cochlodinium was successful. The maximum cochlodinium cell count was 6.5 million per liter in one aquarium. The mean of 3 replicate of this treatment was 3.600.000. cells per liter with f/2 (modified) medium. For culture of cochlodinium polykricoides, the f/2 (modyfied) medium was better than others mediums.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: Primary researches on aquaculture of endemic shrimp species carried out since 1984-5 by Iranian Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO) .After a decade, the condition for extension and development of shrimp culture in the country prepared. Despite huge investment of government for preparation and construction of shrimp sites, only small part of present potential in southern coast of the country is under production. About 18 different shrimp species inhabit in Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman, in which 4 species have larger size, and more abundant, and harvest commercially . Penaeus semisulcatus, Fenneropenaeus merguiensis and Metapenaeus affinis as commercial species distributed throughout of Persian Gulf from mouth of Arvand River in north- west to strait of Hormoz, and also some parts of Oman Sea. While Fenneropenaeus indicus distributed mainly in coastal area of Oman Sea. Shrimp culture begin in Iran by P.semisulcatus, continued by imported Penaeus monodon, and developed by using of F.indicus. After confront to slow growth and viral diseases in 2001 (Khouzestan province) and 2005 (Bushehr Province), at the same time I.F.R.O acquired the bio-technique for production of Litopenaeus vannamei, and hence the condition for introduction the new species to the shrimp culture industry provided. In accordance for development of shrimp culture, I.F.R.O carried out various research activities, and established specific research center for this purpose. Research projects regarding brood-stock management, breeding and larvae production, grow out, water management and disease identification and treatment have been carried, and induced considerable impacts on quantitative and qualitative development of shrimp culture in the country.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-25
    Description: This study has carried out on five earth ponds of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps investigation and Mahan Siraf farm s which located at Helleh site in the Bushehr province from may 2007. main objectives’ were: (1) Measurements of quality factors in water and sediment, Planktons and benthoses, (2) quality factors’ effects on growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei. With respect the time of shrimp stocking and harvesting, the frequencies of water and sediment sampling were done per 10 day and once per month, respectively. both sediment sampling of the pond beds have done before and after harvesting. The measured factors in the water ponds were: pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, transparency, temperature (Twice a day in the morning and the afternoon), chlorophyll-a, nitrate, nitrite, orthophosphate, iron, biochemical oxygen demand, TSS, TDS, Planktons. The parameters (pH, total organic matter, iron) were measured in sediment. The measurement of grain size has done in two times (before and after harvesting). Independent variables including nitrate, Ammonia, orthophosphate, iron and chlorophyll-a had significant correlations with shrimp weights as dependent variable. Nitrate showed the highest correlation with the shrimp weights (r=0.921). overall correlation of fifth most important factors with the shrimp weights, namely nitrate, orthophosphate, Ammonia, iron and chlorophyll-a was estimated to r=0.999. The results show low concentration of the essential nutrient such as phosphate and nitrate, high concentration of ammonia, undesirable’s transparency, and a great amount of clay in pond beds. On the basis of above description, required to renewing management in fertilizing, feedings, liming qualities of the bed.
    Keywords: Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-08-23
    Description: This project was carried out in 2000 to determine the effect of attractant diet on growth and survival rate of Penaeus semisulcatus in fifteen treatment each with three replication were applied for 45 days. The results indicate that 40I B, 40II and T foods had highest effect on mean weight which were 0.1556, 0.1492 and 0.1164 grams respectively. The yield data were compared with regression which showed us the positive correlation coefficient between yield and food consumption was 0.75.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-08-26
    Description: The influence of different percent’s of plant protein (30, 50 and 70) in the diet of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with 38 percent protein, in comparison with a commercial shrimp diet (Fenneropenaeus indicus) with 39 percent protein (contain20 percent plant protein) was studied. Initial weight of shrimp was 10±1 gram. The average increase of shrimp weight in the end of culture period in experimental treatment 1 (contain 30 percent plant protein and 70 percent animal protein), 5.89±0.06 gram, experimental treatment 2 (contain 50 percent plant protein and 50 percent animal protein), 6.22±0.25 gram, experimental treatment 3 (contain 70 percent plant protein and 30 percent animal protein) 6/19±0/24 gram and in the control treatment (contain 20 percent plant protein and 80 percent animal protein) 6/42±0/40 were measured. Generally in the study of influence of experimental diets and control diet on the growth rate(GR), food conversion rate (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR), average daily gain (ADG), demonstrate that, mentioned parameters in the control treatment is better than experimental treatments. But no significant difference measured between them (p〉0/05). Also results showed that, application of diets contain 50 percent of plant protein (with 22 percent soybean meal), and 70 percent of plant protein (with 72 percent soybean meal), can decrease costs of diet preparation and therefore shrimp production.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-09-23
    Description: Present study was conducted in the Persian Gulf (Iranian waters) from 2009 to 2012. The main objective of the research was economical evalution of the stock enhancement of banana prawn (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) and green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) in the studied area. Also tagging effects on the growth and mortality of tagged shrimp were studied. In banana prawn, broodstock shrimps were hatched in June. In July 2010 and 2011some of the juvenile of this species were marked by red fluorescent liquid injection and released were made at night in the estuaries of Tiab, Kolahi and Koolgan in the Hormozgan province. 84000 juveniles of banana prawn in 2010 and about 50000 in 2011 were released in this area. In Bushehr province waters, adults shrimp were reared and when juveniles reached to optimum size, some of them were tagged by red and blue coloures and were released in the coastal waters of Bandargah and Delvar. Tagging and releasing program of green tiger prawn was performed in 2010 and 2012. A total number of 8000 prawn in 2010 and about 30000 juveniles prawn in 2010 were released. Activities for recaptured shrimps were informed by posters describing the tagging program that were distributed to local peoples, as well as local magazines, and a tagging program awareness film was broadcast on national television three times prior to the shrimp fishing season and during catch season. To encourage people to report recaptures a reward of two handered thousent riales was paid for the return of each marked shrimp accompanied by information. Economical evaluation of banana prawn was performed based on releasing and recaptured program in 2011. As it mentioned in this year 50000 of juvenile shrimp were tagged and released. At the same time 4700000 of unmarked shrimp were released in this area. In the shrimp season 11 (./022%) of tagged shrimp were recaptured. Movements of tagged shrimp were northwesterly to released area. Weight average of tagged prawns was 1.2 gram. Mean weight of the recaptured prawns was 22.06±4.9 gram. Body weight Growth of the recaptured prawns was between 16-26 grams with the growth speed of 0.88-1.41 per week. The number of recaptured prawn to the released prawn was 0.022 percent. Based on the released prawns (4700000) to the recaptured percent (./022%), about 103400 of released shrimp with mean weight of 2.5 tones were observed in the Hormozgan shrimp catch. The average price of shrimp in the studied year in the local market was 85000 Rials per kilogram. These results showed that the ratio of profit is 210 milion riales. In the taggiing program of green tiger prawn in the Bushehr waters only one recaptured shrimp was observed in the catch season (2012). Total weigth and total length of this prawn was 99 gram and 22 centimeter respectively .given the small percentage of the recaptured, economical analyses was not performed on this species. The effects of tagging on the growth and mortality of green tiger prawn were studied. The present study was carried out in the shrimp research station in Bandargah and Abzistan shrimp Hatchery Company in Delvar during 2010 and 2012. The accuracy of the study was more rialable in 2012. In this year growth and mortality of juveniles that was marked by red and blue coloures, were studied in both area Bandargah and Delvar. In Bandargah, three tanks of 300 l each with 30 specimens were used for untagged shrimp as a control group, and tagged with injected liquid fluorescent during 98 days. Length and weigh of 10 specimens were measured evenly in different times. ANOVA results (α = 0.1 and α = 0.5) showed no significant differences between length growth of tagged shrimp and control group. The mortality of two groups was evaluated by numbering of remained shrimps and the average of survival was 52 percent in the tagged and 44.5 percent in tagged shrimps. In the Delvar station, Abzistan Company, the specimens were kept in the 9 tanks each 300 l that included of 30 untagged shrimps, 30 blue tagged shrimps and 30 red florescent tagged shrimp. The growth and mortality of this station were evaluated during 110 days. The growth rate of the specimens were measured and recorded evenly. The results of ANOVA (α = 0.1 and α = 0.5) showed no difference significantly in the weight growth of tagged and control groups. The mortality rates among the control group, red tagged and blue tagged were 63 percent, 59 percent and 40 percent. The mortality of the groups was differences in the two stations and it seems the management and environmental conditions were more affected on the mortalities. The results of the study show that the ratio of profit to the coast is 0.46 that is covering half of the coasts, so that the expenditures are two times more than profit. This result is the minimum of economical value of stock enhancement of shrimp. The results of study showed that the injected tags into the body tissue of shrimp has no affected on the growth rate and mortality.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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