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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Melanotropic peptide ; Peptide-lipid interaction ; Spin label ; 2H-NMR
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The interaction of the cationic tridecapeptide α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and the biologically more active analog [Nle4, DPhe7]-α-MSH with lipid membranes was investigated by means of ESR of spin probes incorporated in the bilayer, and NMR of deuterated lipids. All spin labels used here, stearic acid and phospholipid derivatives labeled at the 5th and 12th position of the hydrocarbon chain, and the cholestane label, incorporated into anionic vesicles of DMPG (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol) in the liquid-crystalline phase, indicated that both peptides decrease the motional freedom of the acyl chains. No peptide effect was detected with neutral lipid bilayers. Changes in the α-deuteron quadrupolar splittings and spin lattice relaxation time of DMPG deuterated at the glycerol headgroup paralleled the results obtained with ESR, showing that the peptides cause a better packing both at the headgroup and at the acyl chain bilayer regions. The stronger effect caused by the more potent analog in the membrane structure, when compared to the native hormone, is discussed in terms of its larger lipid association constant and/or its deeper penetration into the bilayer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A 28-year-old man, whose infant son died of multiple malformations, was shown to have a balanced 13q-/18q+ translocation. He was phenotypically and mentally normal. Studies of the pedigree revealed the presence of bilateral microtia on the side of the spouse of the proband, transmitted in a dominant mode through four generations. Occasional cells from the proband and his mother exhibited an elongated long arm of a chromosome 16.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A young female was diagnosed as having X-linked muscular dystrophy of the Duchenne type. Chromosome studies, including trypsin-Giemsa banding, Quinacrine fluorescence, and nucleolus organizer region (NOR) silver staining revealed an X-autosome reciprocal translocation t(X;21) (p21;p12). Utilizing both [3H] thymidine autoradiography and the BrdU-Hoechst 33258-Giemsa technique, lymphocytes and fibroblasts were found to show a preferential inactivation of the normal X suggesting the presence of a single mutant gene on the translocated X. This patient is one of seven reported cases of an X-linked muscular dystrophy associated with an X-autosome translocation. In all seven cases the exchange point in the X chromosome is in band p21 at or near the site of the Duchenne gene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The high incidence of the fra (X) syndrome (about 1∶2000 male newborns) requires an explanation in view of the low fitness of mentally retarded hemizygous males and heterozygous females. In the past, it has been proposed that the mutation rate may be unusually high, and that mutations occur exclusively in male germ cells. According to an alternative hypothesis, a moderately high mutation rate might combine with a selective advantage of clinically unaffected heterozygotes. In earlier studies, such a combined hypothesis was shown to lead to plausible implications regarding mutation rate and fitness. Moreover, a mutation rate in male germ cells of the magnitude required by the exclusive mutation hypothesis was excluded by studies on comprehensive pedigree data. In this third study in the series, an increased fitness of heterozygous females is demonstrated directly by a comparison of the reproductive performance of heterozygotes with that of adequate controls (mothers and grandparents of Down's syndrome patients). Since average numbers of children have decreased during recent decades in populations of industrialized countries, heterozygotes (mothers of affected probands and their female relatives in their own generation) were subdivided into those born before and after 1940. Moreover, sibship sizes of probands' mothers and fathers were analyzed separately for family branches in which the fra (X) trait segregated (mostly the maternal branch), or did not segregate (in most instances the paternal branch). In all four categories reproductive performance in heterozygotes was found to be higher than in the controls. This difference was significant statistically for two of the four groups: it was small and nonsignificant only for the parental family branch in which the fra (X) mutant did not segregate and for mothers born after 1940. Fitness estimates ranged between 1.11 and 1.36. A higher incidence of dizygotic twinning suggests a biological component for this increased fertility. On the other hand, fra (X) families have a significantly lower social status than the controls. This suggests a socio-psychological component of their higher fertility. Apparently, both components contribute to their fertility: at present, their relative importance cannot be assessed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0012-1606
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The reported infrared (IR) emission spectra from 1999 Leonid fireballs show a 3.4 micron C-H emission band and unidentified bands at longer wavelengths. Upon atmospheric entry, the Leonid meteorites were flash-heated to temperatures around 2400K, which would destroy any organics on the surface of the meteorite grains. We propose that the nu(sub )CH emission band in the Leonid emission spectra arises from matrix-embedded C(sub n)-H-O entities that are protected from instant pyrolysis. Our model is based on IR absorption nu(sub )CH bands, which we observed in laboratory-grown MgO and natural olivine single crystals, where they arise from C(sub n)-H-O units imbedded in the mineral matrix, indicative of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 organics. Instead of being pyrolyzed, the C(sub n)-H-O entities in the Leonid trails become vibrationally excited to higher levels n = 1, 2, 3 etc. During de-excitation they emit at 3.4 microns, due to the (0 =〉 1) transition, and at longer wavelengths, due to hot bands. As a first step toward verifying this hypothesis we measured the C-H vibrational manifold of hexane (C6H14). The calculated positions of the (2 =〉 l ) , (3 =〉 2), and possibly (4 =〉 3) hot bands agree with the Leonid emission bands at 3.5, 3.8 and 4.l microns.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: Proceedings of the NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop; 245-248; NASA/CP-2002-211863
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: We measured the infrared (IR) nu(sub CH) absorption bands around 3.4 microns (2800 - 3000 cm(sup -1) in large laboratory-grown magnesium oxide (MgO) and natural olivine single crystals that crystallized from CO/CO2/H2O saturated melts. These bands are very similar to those from many astronomical sources, such as from dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM), from the outflow of evolved stars, etc., and they are characteristic of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 entities. In our laboratory single crystals the VCH bands arise from C-H entities that were introduced by a solid solution process, and that are imbedded in the mineral matrix in form of polyatomic C(sub n) entities with C atoms bonded to O and to H. Heating breaks the C-H bonds, causing hydrogen to disperse in the mineral matrix. C-H bonds are re-established rapidly during annealing. We propose that dust grains probably contain the same type of internal C(sub n)-H entities in solid matrix rather than an external organic layer covering the grain surfaces. Thermodynamical arguments show that the concentration of organics in solid solution in small grains can be comparable to that found in astronomical environments.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: Proceedings of the NASA Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop; 204-207; NASA/CP-2002-211863
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A gene coding for a modifying DNA-methyltransferase which methylates the central C in the BsuR recognition sequence 5′GGCC was identified in the genome of the temperate Bacillus subtilis phage SPβ. This gene is expressed only after induction of the prophage by either mitomycin C or UV. The presence of active methyltransferase in induced cells leads to modification of BsuR recognition sites in SPβ DNA as well as in heterologous DNA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The following types of experiments for a proposed Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility are described: (1) rheology of assemblies of inelastic, frictional particles; (2) grain dynamics in zero gravity; (3) properties of tenuous fractal aggregates; (4) orientation of weakly ferroelectric dust grains; (5) supersonic nozzle beam; and (6) some astrophysical cluster experiments. The required capabilities and desired hardware for the facility are detailed.
    Keywords: MATERIALS PROCESSING
    Type: Microgravity Particle Research on the Space Station; p 29-34
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