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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-10-01
    Description: Autophagy is the principal catabolic prosurvival pathway during nutritional starvation. However, excessive autophagy could be cytotoxic, contributing to cell death, but its mechanism remains elusive. Arginine starvation has emerged as a potential therapy for several types of cancers, owing to their tumor-selective deficiency of the arginine metabolism. We demonstrated here...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2009-03-28
    Description: The spread of HIV between immune cells is greatly enhanced by cell-cell adhesions called virological synapses, although the underlying mechanisms have been unclear. With use of an infectious, fluorescent clone of HIV, we tracked the movement of Gag in live CD4 T cells and captured the direct translocation of HIV across the virological synapse. Quantitative, high-speed three-dimensional (3D) video microscopy revealed the rapid formation of micrometer-sized "buttons" containing oligomerized viral Gag protein. Electron microscopy showed that these buttons were packed with budding viral crescents. Viral transfer events were observed to form virus-laden internal compartments within target cells. Continuous time-lapse monitoring showed preferential infection through synapses. Thus, HIV dissemination may be enhanced by virological synapse-mediated cell adhesion coupled to viral endocytosis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2756521/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2756521/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hubner, Wolfgang -- McNerney, Gregory P -- Chen, Ping -- Dale, Benjamin M -- Gordon, Ronald E -- Chuang, Frank Y S -- Li, Xiao-Dong -- Asmuth, David M -- Huser, Thomas -- Chen, Benjamin K -- 5R24 CA095823-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- AI074420-02/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DP1 DA028866/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI074420/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI074420-01A2/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI074420-02/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- S10RR09145-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- ULRR024146/PHS HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 27;323(5922):1743-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1167525.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19325119" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*physiology/ultrastructure/*virology ; *Cell Adhesion ; Coculture Techniques ; Cytochalasin D/pharmacology ; Endocytosis ; HIV/*physiology/ultrastructure ; Humans ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional ; Jurkat Cells ; Microscopy, Confocal ; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission ; Microscopy, Video ; Receptors, CCR5/metabolism ; Receptors, CXCR4/metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; *Virus Internalization ; gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 70 (1997), S. 2111-2113 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Using Au precoatings has been observed to significantly enhance the field emission properties of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films deposited on Si substrates. The electron emission can be turned on at a low field as 7 V/μm and a large emission current density as 2000 μA/cm2 can be obtained at 20 V/μm applied field. However, preannealing the Au-coated Si substrates at 500 °C for 30 min is necessary to achieve such a performance. Microscopic examination on surface and cross-sectional morphologies of the DLC/Au/Si films using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, in conjunction with the elemental depth profile examination of these films using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, indicated that substantial interdiffusion between DLC, Au, and Si layers has occurred. Such kind of reaction is proposed to lower the resistance for electrons to transport across the interfaces and, thereafter, enhances the field emission properties of the DLC/Au/Si films. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 69 (1996), S. 3504-3506 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Local electron field emission properties of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were measured by a probe method in 1 atmosphere ambient pressure, using the modified scanning tunneling microscopic (STM) system, and the diode method. In the STM probe method, the field emission was turn on at a low bias as +2.67 V. A large emission current of 40 nA was attained at +7 volt bias voltage and the emission current density was estimated as Jt=5 A/cm2. By contrast, the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the same DLC films measured by diode method in 10−6 Torr ambient pressure revealed that the electron field emission was produced for a 13.2 V/μm electric field, and a high emission current density of J=160 μA/cm2 was obtained for a E=20 V/μm electric field. The geometrical enhancement factor (α), evaluated from the Fowler–Nordheim plot was around α=30, which is larger than what would be expected from a planar surface. This can be interpreted as the evidence that electrons are emitted locally from spherical SP3 clusters. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 68 (1996), S. 1666-1668 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The effect of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films coated by pulsed laser deposition technique on the electron emission characteristics of Mo tips is examined. Turn-on voltage (V0) was lowered from 40 V for Mo tips to 22 V for DLC coated Mo tips and maximum anode current (IA) was increased from ∼44 μA for Mo tips to ∼2.0 mA for DLC coated Mo tips. Maximum anode current (IA) for the DLC coated Mo tips, however, decreased during operation. Raman spectroscopy and selected area diffraction (SAD) in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the degradation of electron emission behavior can be ascribed to the conversion of sp3-bonds, characteristic for diamond, to sp2-bonds, characteristics for graphite. The transformation of the structure is assumed to be induced by the local heat from the DLC coatings. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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