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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-12-30
    Description: A simple scheme to produce strong magnetic fields due to cold electron flow in an open-ended coil heated by high power laser pulses is proposed. It differs from previous generation of magnetic fields driven by fast electron current in a capacitor-coil target [S. Fujioka et al ., Sci. Rep. 3 , 1170 (2013)]. The fields in our experiments are measured by B-dot detectors and proton radiography, respectively. A 205 T strong magnetic field at the center of the coil target is generated in the free space at Iλ 2 of 6.85 × 10 14  W cm −2   μ m 2 , where I is the laser intensity, and λ is the laser wavelength. The magnetic field strength is proportional to Iλ 2 . Compared with the capacitor-coil target, the generation mechanism of the magnetic field is straightforward and the coil is easy to be fabricated.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: Two-dimensional tailoring of a proton beam is realized by a “particle lens” in our experiment. A large quantity of electrons, generated by an intense femtosecond laser irradiating a polymer target, produces an electric field strong enough to change the trajectory and distribution of energetic protons flying through the electron area. The experiment shows that a strip pattern of the proton beam appears when hot electrons initially converge inside the plastic plate. Then the shape of the proton beam changes to a “fountain-like” pattern when these hot electrons diffuse after propagating a distance.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-12-20
    Description: CDD, the Conserved Domain Database, is part of NCBI’s Entrez query and retrieval system and is also accessible via http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/cdd/cdd.shtml . CDD provides annotation of protein sequences with the location of conserved domain footprints and functional sites inferred from these footprints. Pre-computed annotation is available via Entrez, and interactive search services accept single protein or nucleotide queries, as well as batch submissions of protein query sequences, utilizing RPS-BLAST to rapidly identify putative matches. CDD incorporates several protein domain and full-length protein model collections, and maintains an active curation effort that aims at providing fine grained classifications for major and well-characterized protein domain families, as supported by available protein three-dimensional (3D) structure and the published literature. To this date, the majority of protein 3D structures are represented by models tracked by CDD, and CDD curators are characterizing novel families that emerge from protein structure determination efforts.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-08-28
    Description: Many analytic applications require analyzing user interaction data. In particular, such data can be aggregated over a window to build user activity profiles . Clustering such aggregate profiles is useful for grouping together users with similar behaviors, so that common models could be built for them. In this paper, we present an approach for clustering profiles that are incrementally maintained over a stream of updates. Owing to the potentially large number of users and high rate of interactions, maintaining profile clusters can have high processing and memory resource requirements. To tackle this problem, we apply distributed stream processing. However, in the presence of distributed state, it is a major challenge to partition the profiles over nodes such that memory and computation balance is maintained, while keeping the clustering accuracy high. Furthermore, in order to adapt to potentially changing user interaction patterns, the partitioning of profiles to nodes should be continuously revised, yet one should minimize the migration of profiles so as not to disturb the online processing of updates. We develop a re-partitioning technique that achieves all these goals. To achieve this, we keep micro-cluster summaries at each node and periodically collect these summaries at a central node to perform re-partitioning. We use a greedy algorithm with novel affinity heuristics to revise the partitioning and update the routing tables without introducing a lengthy pause. We showcase the effectiveness of our approach using an application that clusters customers of a telecommunications company based on their aggregate calling profiles.
    Print ISSN: 0010-4620
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2067
    Topics: Computer Science
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-04-17
    Description: The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) starts to branch off in the western Bolu plain. The branches of the NAFZ in this location create the Almacık block which is surrounded by the latest surface ruptures of significant earthquakes that occurred between 1944 and 1999, but its northeastern part remains unruptured. The most recently formed rupture, that was a result of the 1999 November 12 Düzce earthquake, ended to the northwest of the Bakacak Fault. The connection between the Bakacak Fault and the main branch of the NAFZ via the Bolu plain has until now remained unknown. This paper establishes that the route of the missing link runs through the Dağkent, Kasaplar and Bürnük faults, a finding achieved with the help of seismic reflection studies. The paper also argues that the cross cutting nature of these newly determined faults and a stress analysis based on focal mechanism solutions of recent earthquakes demonstrate the termination of the suggested pull-apart nature of the Bolu plain.
    Keywords: Geodynamics and Tectonics
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Chemical doping constitutes an effective route to alter the electronic, chemical, and optical properties of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDs). We used a plasma-assisted method to introduce carbon-hydrogen (CH) units into WS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 monolayers. We found CH-groups to be the most stable dopant to introduce carbon into WS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉, which led to a reduction of the optical bandgap from 1.98 to 1.83 eV, as revealed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Aberration corrected high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC-HRSTEM) observations in conjunction with first-principle calculations confirm that CH-groups incorporate into S vacancies within WS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉. According to our electronic transport measurements, undoped WS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 exhibits a unipolar n-type conduction. Nevertheless, the CH-WS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 monolayers show the emergence of a p-branch and gradually become entirely p-type, as the carbon doping level increases. Therefore, CH-groups embedded into the WS〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 lattice tailor its electronic and optical characteristics. This route could be used to dope other 2D-TMDs for more efficient electronic devices.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: The study is on the properties of diamond coating prepared on milling cutter and its effect on the cutting performance of stone. The method of hot filament chemical vapour deposition HFCVD was used to deposit diamond film coatings on the surface of the cemented carbide milling cutter. The surface morphology, composition and grain orientation of the diamond films on the cemented carbide milling cutter were analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction; the prepared diamond coated milling cutter was used to process the stone experiment, and the cutting performance of the diamond layer cutter with different carbon sources was analysed. The prepared diamond-coated cutter has a small diamond grain size on the surface, typically crystal face disappears, and the grain orientation presents nano-crystalline diamond. Compared to the uncoated cutter, the surface roughness decreases. After coating, the diamond coating on the surface of ...
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-11-22
    Description: In microbial communities, social interactions such as competition occur ubiquitously across multiple spatial scales from local proximity to remote distance. However, it remains unclear how such a spatial variation of interaction contributes to the structural development of microbial populations. Here, we developed synthetic consortia, biophysical theory, and simulations to elucidate the role of spatial interference scale in governing ecosystem organization during range expansion. For consortia with unidirectional interference, we discovered that, at growing fronts, the extinction time of toxin-sensitive species is reciprocal to the spatial interference scale. In contrast, for communities with bidirectional interference, their structures diverge into distinct monoculture colonies under different initial conditions, with the corresponding separatrix set by the spatial scale of interference. Near the separatrix, ecosystem development becomes noise-driven and yields opposite structures. Our results establish spatial interaction scale as a key determinant for microbial range expansion, providing insights into microbial spatial organization and synthetic ecosystem engineering.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2003-04-12
    Description: DNA sequence and annotation of the entire human chromosome 7, encompassing nearly 158 million nucleotides of DNA and 1917 gene structures, are presented. To generate a higher order description, additional structural features such as imprinted genes, fragile sites, and segmental duplications were integrated at the level of the DNA sequence with medical genetic data, including 440 chromosome rearrangement breakpoints associated with disease. This approach enabled the discovery of candidate genes for developmental diseases including autism.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882961/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882961/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Scherer, Stephen W -- Cheung, Joseph -- MacDonald, Jeffrey R -- Osborne, Lucy R -- Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko -- Herbrick, Jo-Anne -- Carson, Andrew R -- Parker-Katiraee, Layla -- Skaug, Jennifer -- Khaja, Razi -- Zhang, Junjun -- Hudek, Alexander K -- Li, Martin -- Haddad, May -- Duggan, Gavin E -- Fernandez, Bridget A -- Kanematsu, Emiko -- Gentles, Simone -- Christopoulos, Constantine C -- Choufani, Sanaa -- Kwasnicka, Dorota -- Zheng, Xiangqun H -- Lai, Zhongwu -- Nusskern, Deborah -- Zhang, Qing -- Gu, Zhiping -- Lu, Fu -- Zeesman, Susan -- Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J -- Teshima, Ikuko -- Chitayat, David -- Shuman, Cheryl -- Weksberg, Rosanna -- Zackai, Elaine H -- Grebe, Theresa A -- Cox, Sarah R -- Kirkpatrick, Susan J -- Rahman, Nazneen -- Friedman, Jan M -- Heng, Henry H Q -- Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe -- Lo-Coco, Francesco -- Belloni, Elena -- Shaffer, Lisa G -- Pober, Barbara -- Morton, Cynthia C -- Gusella, James F -- Bruns, Gail A P -- Korf, Bruce R -- Quade, Bradley J -- Ligon, Azra H -- Ferguson, Heather -- Higgins, Anne W -- Leach, Natalia T -- Herrick, Steven R -- Lemyre, Emmanuelle -- Farra, Chantal G -- Kim, Hyung-Goo -- Summers, Anne M -- Gripp, Karen W -- Roberts, Wendy -- Szatmari, Peter -- Winsor, Elizabeth J T -- Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz -- Teebi, Ahmed -- Minassian, Berge A -- Kere, Juha -- Armengol, Lluis -- Pujana, Miguel Angel -- Estivill, Xavier -- Wilson, Michael D -- Koop, Ben F -- Tosi, Sabrina -- Moore, Gudrun E -- Boright, Andrew P -- Zlotorynski, Eitan -- Kerem, Batsheva -- Kroisel, Peter M -- Petek, Erwin -- Oscier, David G -- Mould, Sarah J -- Dohner, Hartmut -- Dohner, Konstanze -- Rommens, Johanna M -- Vincent, John B -- Venter, J Craig -- Li, Peter W -- Mural, Richard J -- Adams, Mark D -- Tsui, Lap-Chee -- 38103/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- P01 GM061354/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2003 May 2;300(5620):767-72. Epub 2003 Apr 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X8. steve@genet.sickkids.on.ca〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12690205" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autistic Disorder/genetics ; Chromosome Aberrations ; Chromosome Fragile Sites ; Chromosome Fragility ; Chromosome Mapping ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7/*genetics ; Computational Biology ; Congenital Abnormalities/genetics ; CpG Islands ; DNA, Complementary ; Databases, Genetic ; Euchromatin/genetics ; Expressed Sequence Tags ; Gene Duplication ; Genes, Overlapping ; Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics ; Genomic Imprinting ; Humans ; In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ; Limb Deformities, Congenital/genetics ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Neoplasms/genetics ; Pseudogenes ; RNA/genetics ; Retroelements ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Williams Syndrome/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2010-09-30
    Description: The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters are an ancient and widespread family of secondary active transporters. In Escherichia coli, the uptake of l-fucose, a source of carbon for microorganisms, is mediated by an MFS proton symporter, FucP. Despite intensive study of the MFS transporters, atomic structure information is only available on three proteins and the outward-open conformation has yet to be captured. Here we report the crystal structure of FucP at 3.1 A resolution, which shows that it contains an outward-open, amphipathic cavity. The similarly folded amino and carboxyl domains of FucP have contrasting surface features along the transport path, with negative electrostatic potential on the N domain and hydrophobic surface on the C domain. FucP only contains two acidic residues along the transport path, Asp 46 and Glu 135, which can undergo cycles of protonation and deprotonation. Their essential role in active transport is supported by both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Structure-based biochemical analyses provide insights into energy coupling, substrate recognition and the transport mechanism of FucP.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dang, Shangyu -- Sun, Linfeng -- Huang, Yongjian -- Lu, Feiran -- Liu, Yufeng -- Gong, Haipeng -- Wang, Jiawei -- Yan, Nieng -- England -- Nature. 2010 Oct 7;467(7316):734-8. doi: 10.1038/nature09406. Epub 2010 Sep 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Bio-membrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20877283" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Crystallography, X-Ray ; Escherichia coli/*chemistry ; Escherichia coli Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism ; Fucose/metabolism ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Models, Biological ; Models, Molecular ; Monosaccharide Transport Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Protons ; Rotation ; Static Electricity ; Symporters/*chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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