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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Early in 1993, a servo motor within one of three Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) reached stall torque levels on several occasions. Little time was left to plan replacement during the first servicing mission, scheduled at the end of '93. Accelerated bearing life tests confirmed that a small angle rocking motion, known as Coarse Track (CT), accelerated bearing degradation. Saturation torque levels were reached after approximately 20 million test cycles, similar to the flight bearings. Reduction in CT operation, implemented in flight software, extended FGS life well beyond the first servicing mission. However in recent years, bearing torques have resumed upward trends and together with a second, recent bearing torque anomaly has necessitated a scheduled FGS replacement during the upcoming second servicing mission in '97. The results from two series of life tests to quantify FGS bearing remaining life, discussion of bearing on-orbit performance, and future plans to service the FGS servos are presented in this paper.
    Keywords: Mechanical Engineering
    Type: 30th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium; 13-29; NASA-CP-3328
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Climate research needs Accurate global cloud ice measurements Cloud ice properties are fundamental controlling variables of radiative transfer and precipitation Cost-effective, sensitive instruments for diurnal and wide-swath coverage Mature technology for space remote sensing IceCube objectivesDevelop and validate a flight-qualified 883 GHz receiver for future use in ice cloud radiometer missions Raise TRL (57) of 883 GHz receiver technology Reduce instrument cost and risk by developing path to space for COTS sub-mm-wave receiver systems Enable remote sensing of global cloud ice with advanced technologies and techniques
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN25284 , International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 2015); 26-31 Jul. 2015; Milan; Italy
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN30327 , 2015 American Geophysical Union Annual Meeting; 14-18 Dec. 2015; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: We propose to develop a new mission to Titan called Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM). This mission is motivated by the recent discoveries of Titan, its atmosphere and its surface by the Huygens Probe, and a combination of in situ, remote sensing and radar mapping measurements of Titan by the Cassini orbiter. Titan is a body for which Astrobiology (i.e., prebiotic chemistry) will be the primary science goal of any future missions to it. TOAM is planned to use an orbiter and balloon technology (i.e., aerorover). Aerobraking will be used to put payload into orbit around Titan. One could also use aerobraking to put spacecraft into orbit around Saturn first for an Enceladus phase of the mission and then later use aerocapture to put spacecraft into orbit around Titan. The Aerorover will probably use a hot air balloon concept using the waste heat from the MMRTG approx. 1000 watts. Orbiter support for the Aerorover is unique to our approach for Titan. Our strategy to use an orbiter is contrary to some studies using just a single probe with balloon. Autonomous operation and navigation of the Aerorover around Titan will be required, which will include descent near to the surface to collect surface samples for analysis (i.e., touch and go technique). The orbiter can provide both relay station and GPS roles for the Aerorover. The Aerorover will have all the instruments needed to sample Titan's atmosphere, surface, possible methane lakes-rivers, use multi-spectral imagers for surface reconnaissance; to take close up surface images; take core samples and deploy seismometers during landing phase. Both active and passive broadband remote sensing techniques will be used for surface topography, winds and composition measurements.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: Titan Workshop; 14-15 Feb. 2007; Paris; France
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: We propose to develop a new mission to Titan called Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM). This mission is motivated by the recent discoveries of Titan, its atmosphere and its surface by the Huygens Probe, and a combination of in situ, remote sensing and radar mapping measurements of Titan by the Cassini orbiter. Titan is a body for which Astrobiology (i.e., prebiotic chemistry) will be the primary science goal of any future missions to it. TOAM is planned to use an orbiter and balloon technology (i.e., aerorover). Aerobraking will be used to put payload into orbit around Titan. The Aerorover will probably use a hot air balloon concept using the waste heat from the MMRTG approx. 500 watts. Orbiter support for the Aerorover is unique to our approach for Titan. Our strategy to use an orbiter is contrary to some studies using just a single probe with balloon. Autonomous operation and navigation of the Aerorover around Titan will be required, which will include descent near to the surface to collect surface samples for analysis (i.e., touch and go technique). The orbiter can provide both relay station and GPS roles for the Aerorover. The Aerorover will have all the instruments needed to sample Titan's atmosphere, surface, possible methane lakes-rivers, use multi-spectral imagers for surface reconnaissance; to take close up surface images; take core samples and deploy seismometers during landing phase. Both active and passive broadband remote sensing techniques will be used for surface topography, winds and composition measurements.
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: 38th Annual Division of Planetary Sciences Meeting; 9-13 Oct. 2006; Pasadena, CA; United States
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: Cloud ice properties and processes play fundamental roles in atmospheric radiation and precipitation. Limited knowledge and poor representation of clouds in global climate models have led to large uncertainties about cloud feedback processes under climate change. Ice clouds have been used as a tuning parameter in the models to force agreement with observations of the radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere, and precipitation at the bottom. The lack of ice cloud measurements has left the cloud processes at intermediate altitudes unconstrained. Millimeter (mm) and submillimeter (submm)-wave radiometry is widely recognized for its potential to fill the cloud measurement gap in the middle and upper troposphere. Analyses have shown that channels from 183900 GHz offer good sensitivity to ice cloud scattering and can provide ice water path (IWP) products to an accuracy of 25 by simultaneously retrieving ice particle size (Dme) and IWP. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a cost-effective, compact mm/submm-wave instrument for cloud observations that can be deployed on future small satellites.This paper presents a conceptual study for a mm/submm-wave instrument for multispectral measurements of ice clouds. It discusses previous work at these frequencies by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the current instrument study, as well as receiver architectures and their anticipated performance. And finally, it describes a microsatellite prototype intended for use with this mm/submm-wave instrument.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Instrumentation and Photography; Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN15865 , Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing (CSRS); Jul 13, 2014 - Jul 18, 2014; Quebec, QC; Canada|International Geoscience Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS); Jul 13, 2014 - Jul 18, 2014; Quebec, QC; Canada
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: We present a magnesium (Mg) and strontium (Sr) record from an aragonitic speleothem (Grotte de Piste, Morocco, 34‬°N; 04°W) providing a reconstruction of effective rainfall from 619 to 1962 AD. The corresponding drip site was monitored over 2 yr for drip water Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios. Results show evidence for prior aragonite precipitation, which can explain negative correlations between speleothem Mg and Sr concentrations. The data shown here have important climate implications concerning the evolution of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). A comparison of the stalagmite data from Grotte de Piste with an updated tree ring based drought reconstruction from Morocco and other NAO related proxy records confirms that the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) was dominated by NAO+ conditions. The stalagmite record and multiple proxy records from the Iberian Peninsula, however, suggest that considerable rainfall variability occurred during the MWP. This implies that the NAO has been more variable during the MWP than formerly suggested.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-11-26
    Description: NASA maintains and operates a global network of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) ground stations as part of the NASA Space Geodesy Program. The NASA Space Geodesy Network (NSGN) provides the geodetic products that support Earth observations and the related science requirements as outlined by the US National Research Council (NRC 2010, 2018). The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) and the NRC have set an ambitious goal of improving the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) to have an accuracy of 1 millimeter and stability of 0.1 millimeters per year, an order of magnitude beyond current capabilities. NASA and its partners within GGOS are addressing this challenge by planning and implementing modern geodetic stations co-located at existing and new sites around the world. In 2013, NASA demonstrated the performance of its next-generation systems at the prototype next-generation core site at NASA's Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory in Greenbelt, Maryland. Implementation of a new broadband VLBI station in Hawaii was completed in 2016. NASA is currently implementing new VLBI and SLR stations in Texas and is planning the replacement of its other aging domestic and international legacy stations. In this article, we describe critical gaps in the current global network and discuss how the new NSGN will expand the global geodetic coverage and ultimately improve the geodetic products. We also describe the characteristics of a modern NSGN site and the capabilities of the next-generation NASA SLR and VLBI systems. Finally, we outline the plans for efficiently operating the NSGN by centralizing and automating the operations of the new geodetic stations.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN61920 , Journal of Geodesy (ISSN 0949-7714) (e-ISSN 1432-1394); 93; 11; 2263–2273
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2002-03-22
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2003-12-01
    Print ISSN: 0930-7575
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0894
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Springer
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