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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 26 (1981), S. 395-409 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A process has been developed by which very high-modulus semicrystalline polymer films can be extruded continuously from a melt. This is accomplished by controlled cooling of the melt in a two-stage flow channel. A temperature gradient along the flow channel quenches the melt prior to an area reduction in which the polymer undergoes solid-state orientation. Analysis of high-density polyethylene tapes extruded by this process shows that they have properties similar to samples hydrostatically extruded at 120°C. Infrared analysis was used to determine both the degree of crystallinity and degree of orientation in these tapes as well as previously prepared hydrostatically extruded samples.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 26 (1981), S. 1049-1056 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 22 (1982), S. 549-555 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Slow crack growth behavior of medium-density polyethylene pipe samples has been investigated by applying standard and nonstandard fracture mechanics test methods. Slow crack growth rate varied by several orders of magnitude among the PE2306 materials from different manufacturers. Slow crack generated surfaces exhibit fibrous textures of varying degrees of coarseness when examined under the scanning electron microscope. When the measured fiber heights, δ/2, of these samples were plotted against the applied stress intensity factor, KI, they showed a simple power law relationship (of exponent 2). Assuming that the pulled-out fibers transmit almost uniform tensile stresses across the crazed zone at the crack front, the Dugdale-Barenblatt model was introduced to predict the fiber height. Although the model needs further modification, it provides a general power law relationship between the fiber height and the applied stress intensity factor.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 26 (1986), S. 1254-1263 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Solid state rolling of semicrystalline polymers represents a high speed process for producing oriented, high modulus films, tapes, and sheets. The important process variables include roll temperature, thickness of initial sheet, roll speed, take-up tension, roll diameter, and initial morphological state of the polymer. Roll temperature controls both the extent of maximum deformation and the rate of rolling. A minimum temperature exists for each polymer below which the orientation process is sharply limited. This condition is similar to the limitation present in the hydrostatic extrusion process, in which the alpha crystallization temperature limits the orientation process. Roll speeds as high as 20 m/min have been realized. It is apparent that film thickness and thickness reduction ratio have a strong effect on the ultimate rolling rate. The process, as currently practiced, is adiabatic, and therefore, heat transfer limited. The take-up tension influences the extant of orientation in the amorphous phse of of the polymer. This in turn affects its thermal and chemical stability. The effect of roll diameter is to limit the extent of thickness reduction by causing roll-film slippage when the roll dianmeter to thickness reduction ratio is below some as yet undetermined value. The initial morphological state of the polymer affects the amount of crystalline deformation possible, the surface texture of the rolled film, and the tear resistant of the oriented film.
    Additional Material: 17 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 22 (1982), S. 27-33 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Solid state rolling of semi-crystalline polymers is shown to be an effective method of producing high strength, high modulus tape at acceptable production rates. High density polyethylene tape was produced having a tensile strength exceeding 300 MPa and a tensile modulus of 8.7 GPa at production rates exceeding 8 m/min. A significant factor in producing highly oriented tape by the rolling process is roll temperature. Increasing the roll temperature from 25°C to 125°C not only increases the maximum extent of orientation achievable, but increases the mechanical properties at a given degree of thickness reduction. Internal frictional heat development limited the maximum thickness reduction ratio of polypropylene to 6.6:1. This reduction was reached by rolling at 150°C. The resultant tape had a tensile modulus of 5.1 GPa and a tensile strength of 300 MPa.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 18 (1978), S. 908-916 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Hydrostatic extrusion of high density polyethylene at an extrusion ratio of 15:1 was investigated in the temperature range between 100 and 134°C. A thin-walled tube was extruded having a tensile strength of 370 MPa and a tensile modulus of 10 GPa. The extrusion rate was limited by severe extrudate distortion which occurs at a limiting shear stress under stick-slip conditions. Even during steady extrusion wall slip was evident. At a constant extrusion speed, the extrusion pressure was found to be very sensitive to the extrusion temperature. An increase from 120 to 125°C reduced the extrusion pressure by half. Various thermal pretreatments of the starting billets were found to have little effect on the extrusion behavior and physical properties of the extrudate.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: Fuel economy is a pivotal question influencing the future sale and utilization of commercial aircraft. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program Office has a program intended to accelerate the readiness of advanced technologies for energy efficient aircraft. Because the decision to develop a new airframe or engine is a major financial hazard for manufacturers, it is important to know what factors influence the decision making process. A method is described for identifying and ranking individuals and organizations involved at each stage of commercial air transport development, and the barriers that must be overcome in adopting new technologies.
    Keywords: ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT
    Type: NASA-CR-154618
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1966-07-22
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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