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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 51 (1986), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: From an experimental set-up with boundary conditions of an extended initial distribution the diffusion coefficient for glucose in a high K-content carrageenan gel was evaluated as a function of the carrageenan concentration (1, 2 and 4%) and temperature (0.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 25.0, and 36.0°C). According to an Arrhenius-type equation, the activation energies at 1, 2 and 4% of carrageenan were calculated as 18.1, 17.4, and 19.1 kJ/mol. From these data it was concluded that carrageenan affects diffusion mainly by an obstruction effect.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: From an experimental set-up with boundary conditions of an extended initial distribution the diffusion coefficients for glucose in high K-content carrageenan gels and gelatin gels were determined as a function of polymer concentration. The data are evaluated according to the well-known equations on the conduction in heterogeneous systems. It is concluded that both hydrocolloids affect diffusion mainly because of an obstruction effect. In this phenomenon the contribution of the hydration sphere seems to be more important than the polymer itself. Hydrations are calculated to be about 5.0 and 1.90 grams of water per gram of dry polymer respectively for carrageenan and gelatin.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0378-4290
    Keywords: Environmental factors ; Management practice ; Potato ; Solanum ; Yield
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0365-9496
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: To assess how diurnal changes of nitrate reductase (NIA) expression in leaves interact with upstream and downstream processes during nitrate utilization, nitrate uptake, and nitrate and ammonium metabolism were investigated at several times during the diurnal cycle in wild-type tobacco. Plants were grown hydroponically on 2 mM nitrate to exclude possible complications due to changes in the external availability of nitrate, and to allow nitrate uptake to be measured in the growth conditions. (a) In leaves, the NIA transcript decreases during the day and recovers at night, and NIA activity increases three-fold during the first part and declines during the second part of the light period. Nitrate decreases during the day and recovers at night, ammonium, glutamine, glycine and serine increase during the day and decrease at night, and 2-oxoglutarate increases three-fold after illumination and decreases during the last part of the light period. The amplitudes of the diurnal changes are similar to or larger than in tobacco grown on high nitrate in sand. The transcript for plastid glutamine synthetase (GLN2) is low at the end of the night and increases during the day, and glutamine synthetase activity increases to a peak at the end of the day and decreases at night. (b) In the roots, transcript levels for the high affinity nitrate transporter (NRT2) increase in the day and decrease at night. Nitrate uptake is about 40% higher during the day than at night. (c) Comparison of the diurnal changes of the leaf metabolite pools with the rate of nitrate uptake allows diurnal changes in fluxes to be estimated. During the first part of the light, the rate of nitrate assimilation is about two-fold higher than the rate of nitrate uptake, and also exceeds the rate at which reduced nitrogen is metabolized in the GOGAT pathway. The resulting decrease of leaf nitrate and accumulation of nitrogen in intermediates of ammonium metabolism and photorespiration represent about 40 and 15%, respectively, of the total nitrate that enters the plant in 24 h. Later in the diurnal cycle as NIA expression and activity decline, this imbalance is reversed. NRT2 expression and nitrate uptake remain relatively high, and nitrate taken up during the night is used to replenish the leaf nitrate pool. Increased GLN2 expression in leaves during the second part of the light period allows continued assimilation of ammonium released during photorespiration and remobilization of the reduced nitrogen that accumulated earlier in the diurnal cycle.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The influence of elevated [CO2] on the uptake and assimilation of nitrate and ammonium was investigated by growing tobacco plants in hydroponic culture with 2 mm nitrate or 1 mm ammonium nitrate and ambient or 800 p.p.m. [CO2]. Leaves and roots were harvested at several times during the diurnal cycle to investigate the levels of the transcripts for a high-affinity nitrate transporter (NRT2), nitrate reductase (NIA), cytosolic and plastidic glutamine synthetase (GLN1, GLN2), the activity of NIA and glutamine synthetase, the rate of 15N-nitrate and 15N-ammonium uptake, and the levels of nitrate, ammonium, amino acids, 2-oxoglutarate and carbohydrates. (i) In source leaves of plants growing on 2 mm nitrate in ambient [CO2], NIA transcript is high at the end of the night and NIA activity increases three-fold after illumination. The rate of nitrate reduction during the first part of the light period is two-fold higher than the rate of nitrate uptake and exceeds the rate of ammonium metabolism in the glutamate: oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT) pathway, resulting in a rapid decrease of nitrate and the accumulation of ammonium, glutamine and the photorespiratory intermediates glycine and serine. This imbalance is reversed later in the diurnal cycle. The level of the NIA transcript falls dramatically after illumination, and NIA activity and the rate of nitrate reduction decline during the second part of the light period and are low at night. NRT2 transcript increases during the day and remains high for the first part of the night and nitrate uptake remains high in the second part of the light period and decreases by only 30% at night. The nitrate absorbed at night is used to replenish the leaf nitrate pool. GLN2 transcript and glutamine synthetase activity rise to a maximum at the end of the day and decline only gradually after darkening, and ammonium and amino acids decrease during the night. (ii) In plants growing on ammonium nitrate, about 30% of the nitrogen is derived from ammonium. More ammonium accumulates in leaves during the day, and glutamine synthetase activity and glutamine levels remain high through the night. There is a corresponding 30% inhibition of nitrate uptake, a decrease of the absolute nitrate level, and a 15–30% decrease of NIA activity in the leaves and roots. The diurnal changes of leaf nitrate and the absolute level and diurnal changes of the NIA transcript are, however, similar to those in nitrate-grown plants. (iii) Plants growing on nitrate adjust to elevated [CO2] by a coordinate change in the diurnal regulation of NRT2 and NIA, which allows maximum rates of nitrate uptake and maximum NIA activity to be maintained for a larger part of the 24 h diurnal cycle. In contrast, tobacco growing on ammonium nitrate adjusts by selectively increasing the rate of ammonium uptake, and decreasing the expression of NRT2 and NIA and the rate of nitrate assimilation. In both conditions, the overall rate of inorganic nitrogen utilization is increased in elevated [CO2] due to higher rates of uptake and assimilation at the end of the day and during the night, and amino acids are maintained at levels that are comparable to or even higher than in ambient [CO2]. (iv) Comparison of the diurnal changes of transcripts, enzyme activities and metabolite pools across the four growth conditions reveals that these complex diurnal changes are due to transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms, which act several steps and are triggered by various signals depending on the condition and organ. The results indicate that nitrate and ammonium uptake and root NIA activity may be regulated by the sugar supply, that ammonium uptake and assimilation inhibit nitrate uptake and root NIA activity, that the balance between the influx and utilization of nitrate plays a key role in the diurnal changes of the NIA transcript in leaves, that changes of glutamine do not play a key role in transcriptional regulation of NIA in leaves but instead inhibit NIA activity via uncharacterized post-transcriptional or post-translational mechanisms, and that high ammonium acts via uncharacterized post-transcriptional or post-translational mechanisms to stabilize glutamine synthetase activity during the night.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Higher rates of nitrate assimilation are required to support faster growth in enhanced carbon dioxide. To investigate how this is achieved, tobacco plants were grown on high nitrate and high light in ambient and enhanced (700 μmol mol–1) carbon dioxide. Surprisingly, enhanced carbon dioxide did not increase leaf nitrate reductase (NR) activity in the middle of the photoperiod. Possible reasons for this anomalous result were investigated. (a) Measurements of biomass, nitrate, amino acids and glutamine in plants fertilized once and twice daily with 12 mol m–3 nitrate showed that enhanced carbon dioxide did not lead to a nitrate limitation in these plants. (b) Enhanced carbon dioxide modified the diurnal regulation of NR activity in source leaves. The transcript for nia declined during the light period in a similar manner in ambient and enhanced carbon dioxide. The decline of the transcript correlated with a decrease of nitrate in the leaf, and was temporarily reversed after re-irrigating with nitrate in the second part of the photoperiod. The decline of the transcript was not correlated with changes of sugars or glutamine. NR activity and protein decline in the second part of the photoperiod, and NR is inactivated in the dark in ambient carbon dioxide. The decline of NR activity was smaller and dark inactivation was partially reversed in enhanced carbon dioxide, indicating that post-transcriptional or post-translational regulation of NR has been modified. The increased activation and stability of NR in enhanced carbon dioxide was correlated with higher sugars and lower glutamine in the leaves. (c) Enhanced carbon dioxide led to increased levels of the minor amino acids in leaves. (d) Enhanced carbon dioxide led to a large decrease of glycine and a small decrease of serine in leaves of mature plants. The glycine:serine ratio decreased in source leaves of older plants and seedlings. The consequences of a lower rate of photorespiration for the levels of glutamine and the regulation of nitrogen metabolism are discussed. (e) Enhanced carbon dioxide also modified the diurnal regulation of NR in roots. The nia transcript increased after nitrate fertilization in the early and the second part of the photoperiod. The response of the transcript was not accentuated in enhanced carbon dioxide. NR activity declined slightly during the photoperiod in ambient carbon dioxide, whereas it increased 2-fold in enhanced carbon dioxide. The increase of root NR activity in enhanced carbon dioxide was preceded by a transient increase of sugars, and was followed by a decline of sugars, a faster decrease of nitrate than in ambient carbon dioxide, and an increase of nitrite in the roots. (f) To interpret the physiological significance of these changes in nitrate metabolism, they were compared with the current growth rate of the plants. (g) In 4–5-week-old plants, the current rate of growth was similar in ambient and enhanced carbon dioxide (≈ 0·4 g–1 d–1). Enhanced carbon dioxide only led to small changes of NR activity, nitrate decreased, and overall amino acids were not significantly increased. (h) Young seedlings had a high growth rate (0·5 g–1 d–1) in ambient carbon dioxide, that was increased by another 20% in enhanced carbon dioxide. Enhanced carbon dioxide led to larger increases of NR activity and NR activation, a 2–3-fold increase of glutamine, a 50% increase of glutamate, and a 2–3-fold increase in minor amino acids. It also led to a higher nitrate level. It is argued that enhanced carbon dioxide leads to a very effective stimulation of nitrate uptake, nitrate assimilation and amino acid synthesis in seedlings. This will play an important role in allowing faster growth rates in enhanced carbon dioxide at this stage.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0167-2789
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: adaptation ; maize ; nutrient uptake ; root growth ; root temperature ; shoot base temperature ; shoot growth ; shoot demand per unit of roots ; spring wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effects of low root zone temperatures (RZT) on nutrient demand for growth and the capacity for nutrient acquisition were compared in maize and wheat growing in nutrient solution. To differentiate between direct temperature effects on nutrient uptake and indirect effects via an altered ratio of shoot to root growth, the plants were grown with their shoot base including apical shoot meristem either within the root zone (low SB), i.e. at RZT (12°, 16°, or 20°C) or, above the root zone (high SB), i.e. at uniformly high air temperature (20°/16° day/night). At low SB, suboptimal RZT reduced shoot growth more than root growth in wheat, whereas the opposite was true in maize. However, in both species the shoot growth rate per unit weight of roots, which was taken as parameter for the shoot demand for mineral nutrients per unit of roots, decreased at low RZT. Accordingly, the concentrations of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) remained constant or even increased at low RZT despite reduced uptake rates. At high SB, shoot growth at low RZT in both species was higher than at low SB, whereas root growth was not increased. At high SB, the shoot demand per unit of roots was similar for all RZT in wheat, but increased with decreasing RZT in maize. Uptake rates of K at high SB and low RZT adapted to shoot demand within four days, and were even higher in maize than in wheat. Uptake rates of P adapted more slowly to shoot demand in both species, resulting in reduced concentrations of P in the shoot, particularly in maize. In conclusion, the two species did not markedly differ in their physiological capacity for uptake of K and P at low RZT. However, maize had a lower ability than wheat to adapt morphologically to suboptimal RZT by increasing biomass allocation towards the roots. This may cause a greater susceptibility of maize to nutrient deficiency, particularly if the temperatures around the shoot base are high and uptake is limited by nutrient transport processes in the soil towards the roots.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: maize ; net translocation rate ; micronutrient ; root zone temperature ; shoot base temperature ; shoot demand
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effects of suboptimal root zone temperatures (RZTs) on net translocation rates from the roots to the shoots and the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu were examined in maize grown in nutrient solution or soil. Plants were grown at 12 °C, 18 °C and 24 °C RZT. At each RZT, the growth-related shoot demand for nutrients was varied by independently modifying the temperature of the shoot base (SBT) including the apical shoot meristem. The net translocation rates of Mn and Zn from the roots to the shoots were reduced at low RZTs, irrespective of the SBT and of the substrate (soil or nutrient solution). Obviously, the net translocation rates of Mn and Zn at low RZT were mainly regulated by temperature effects on the roots and not by the chemical nutrient availability in the rhizosphere or by shoot growth rate as controlled by SBTs. When both RZT and SBT were reduced, the decrease in net translocation rates of Mn and Zn was similar to the decline in the shoot growth rate and concentrations of Mn and Zn in the shoot fresh matter were not greatly affected or were even increased by low RZT. However, at high SBT and low RZT in nutrient solution, the depressed net translocation rates of Mn and Zn combined with the increased shoot growth resulted in significantly decreased concentrations of Mn and Zn in the shoot, indicating that Mn and Zn may become deficient even at high chemical availability. By contrast to Mn and Zn, the net translocation rates of Fe and Cu at all RZTs were markedly enhanced by increased SBTs. Accordingly, the concentrations of Fe and Cu in the shoot fresh matter were not greatly affected by RZTs, irrespective of the SBTs. These results indicate that the ability of roots to supply Fe and Cu to the shoot was internally regulated by the growth related shoot demand per unit of roots.
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