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  • 1
    Call number: MOP Per 699(1985,1)
    In: Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR. N, Abteilung Mathematik, Naturwissenschaften, Technik
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 153 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR : N, Abteilung Mathematik, Naturwissenschaften, Technik 1985,1
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary H-Y antigen was examined in XX-, XY-, and XO-mice using spleen, kidney, and liver cells of the animals for the absorption of the anti-H-Y antiserum produced in the rat. The cells of the XY- and XO-mice were found to be H-Y antigenpositive while the cells of the XX-mice were negative. As in Turner syndrome patients with 45,X, in the XO-female mice the H-Y antigen titre was reduced as compared to normal XY-male mice; intermediate values between those of normal male and female mice were obtained. These results clearly indicate that as in man, in the mouse the structural gene for H-Y antigen is not Y-linked but is located on an autosome. Furthermore, the concept of the regulation of the H-Y antigen gene expression in the human (Wolf et al. 1980a, b) by an X-linked repressor gene, escaping X-inactivation in the XX-female and an Y-linked inducer gene also seems to hold true in the mouse.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Lymphocyte karyotyping of an infant girl with the clinical features of microphthalmia, iridoschisis, goiter, hip joint dysplasia, labium synechia and craniotabes revealed an Xp deletion. The lymphocyte karyotypes of the parents were normal. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation studies showed that, in 42 out of 43 metaphases, the deleted X chromosome was late replicating. In one metaphase, the normal X chromosome was observed to be allocyclic. Using DNA markers from the Xp22 region, the breakpoint was assigned distal to DXS16 (pXUT23) and proximal to DXS143 (dic56). Dosage intensity measurements confirmed that the STS gene and the DNA marker DXS31 were involved in the deleted area. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that the paternally derived X-chromosome was deleted.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We describe the detection of ectopic (“illegitimate”) transcripts of the proacrosin and protamine 2 genes, which are specific for human spermatogenesis, in non-cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. After specifically-primed reverse transcription of total lymphocyte RNA, these rare transcripts can be directly visualised after two rounds of polymerase chain reaction with nested primers. Sequence and restriction analyses of the corresponding fragments have confirmed that transcripts of proacrosin and protamine 2 are present in the lymphocytes not only of males, but also of adult females.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das erstmalige Auftreten der Produkte verschiedener Allele eines Genlocus während der Embryogenese wurde am Beispiel der S-NADP-MDH bei der Maus untersucht. Heterozygote Nachkommen der Kreuzung C3HxCBA wurden in verschiedenen Embryonalstadien entnommen und auf Enzymaktivität geprüft. Unberfruchtete Eier sowie präimplantative Stadien zeigen elektrophoretisch keine Aktivität. Im postimplantativen Embryo tritt erstmals am 10. Tag (228 Std nach Befruchtung) ein Elektrophoresemuster auf; die 3 Heteromere des tetrameren Isoenzyms sind in binomialer Verteilung sichtbar. 240 Std nach Befruchtung ist das erwartete 5-Bandenmuster des Heterozygoten komplett. AktivitätsMessungen zeigen einen steilen Anstieg der Enzymaktivität bei 240 Std. Diese Befunde lassen sich dahingehend interpretieren, daß die beiden untersuchten Allele relativ spät in der Embryonalentwicklung synchron ihre Syntheseaktivität aufnehmen.
    Notes: Summary The first appearance during mouse development of different allelic products was studied using the supernatant (S-)form of NADP-dependent MDH. Heterozygote offspring were produced by cross-breeding the strains C3H and CBA, and the embryos were taken at various developmental stages. The electrophoretic examination revealed no enzyme activity in unfertilized ova and preimplantation stages. After implantation, an isoenzyme pattern was seen for the first time at day 10 (228 hrs after fertilization), representing the 3 different heteromers of this tetrameric enzyme in binomial distribution. 240 hrs after fertilization, the 5-banded pattern to be expected in the heterozygotes was complete. Measurements of enzyme activity revealed a strong activity increase at about 240 hrs. The results indicate that the S-form of NADP-MDH appears rather late in development and that the two alleles tested at this gene locus commence functioning synchronously.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In Oocyten oder unbefruchteten Eizellen verschiedener Säuger finden sich verschiedene LDH-Isoenzymmuster. Während bei Species der Ordnungen Rodentia und Lagomorpha stets nur LDH1 (β-Untereinheiten) gefunden wurden, zeigten Arten der Ordnungen Carnivora und Artiodactyla weitere LDH-Isoenzyme, die auf Beteiligung von α-Untereinheiten schließen lassen.
    Notes: Summary Different LDH isoenzyme patterns are present in oocytes or unfertilized egg cells of different mammals. While in species of the orders Rodentia and Lagomorpha only LDH1 (β-subunits) has been found, species of the order Carnivora and Artiodactyla show further LDH isoenzymes, indicating the participation of α-subunits.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei Maus, Ratte, Meerschwein und Goldhamster wurde das LDH-Isoenzymmuster während der preimplantativen und frühen postimplantativen Entwicklung mit Hilfe der Mikro-Disk-Elektrophorese untersucht. Dabei fand sich vor der Implantation nur LDH1 (β-Untereinheiten), nach der Implantation zunächst nur LDH5 (α-Untereinheiten); weitere Isoenzyme kamen in Abhängigkeit vom Alter der Embryonen später hinzu. Daraus kann geschlossen werden, daß bei Rodentiern allgemein während der preimplantativen Entwicklung ausschließlich der aus β-Ketten bestehende mütterlich übertragen LDH-Vorrat vorhanden ist und die Aktivierung der embryonalen LDH-Gene erst nach der Implantation erfolgt. Dabei wird zuerst das Gen für α-Ketten und später das Gen für β-Ketten der LDH aktiviert. Im Gegensatz dazu werden beim Kaninchen offensichtlich die embryonalen LDH-Gene bereits längere Zeit vor der Implantation aktiviert: während in Oocyten aus dem Ovar wie bei Rodentiern ebenfalls nur β-Ketten nachweisbar sind, können bei 86 Std alten Embryonen (mittlere Blastocyste) mehrere LDH-Isoenzyme nachgewiesen werden, an deren Bildung α- und β-Untereinheiten beteiligt sind.
    Notes: Summary The LDH-isoenzyme pattern was studied by microdisc electrophoresis in pre-implantation and early post-implantation embryos of the mouse, rat, guinea-pig and Syrian hamster. Prior to implantation only LDH1 (β subunits) is present. After implantation only LDH5 (α subunits) is demonstrable; additional isoenzymes appear subsequently. This indicates that in rodent species in general the total pre-implantation LDH activity is based on the maternally transmitted β subunits while the activation of the embryonal LDH genes starts only with implantation. Moreover, the gene for α-subunits is activated first and the gene for β subunits follows later on. As in rodents, LDH1 is also the only LDH isoenzyme present in the ovarian oocyte in the rabbit. However, in contrast to rodents, the embryonal LDH genes start functioning long before implantation in the rabbit: in the 86-hour-old rabbit embryo (middle blastocyst) isoenzymes formed of α and β subunits are already present.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human genetics 〈Berlin〉 20 (1973), S. 133-140 
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die mitochondrialen Formen der NADP-IDH, NADP-MDH, NAD-MDH und AAT können während der Embryogenese der Maus erstmals nach Implantation, und zwar am 11.-12. Entwicklungstag nach Vaginalpfropf, elektrophoretisch nachgewiesen werden. Der Synthesebeginn dieser Enzyme ist mit der Mitochondrienentwicklung während der Embryogenese in einen Zusammenhang zu bringen. Am Beispiel der mitochondrialen Form der NADP-MDH haben wir weiterhin das erstmalige Auftreten der Produkte verschiedener Allele eines Genlocus während der Embryonalentwicklung geprüft. Bei heterozygoten Nachkommen der Kreuzung CBA x SM/J tritt erstmals 270 Std nach Vaginalpfropf ein Elektrophoresemuster auf; die Heteromere des tetrameren Isoenzyms sind in binomialer Verteilung sichtbar. 295 Std nach Befruchtung ist das zu erwartende 5-Bandenmuster des Heterozygoten vollständig. Diese Befunde lassen die Annahme zu, daß die untersuchten Allele synchron ihre Syntheseaktivität aufnehmen. Entsprechende Ergebnisse sind von der S-NADP-IDH und S-NADP-MDH bereits bekannt.
    Notes: Summary The mitochondrial forms of NADP-IDH, NADP-MDH, NAD-MDH and AAT can be demonstrated electrophoretically for the first time in post-implantation mouse embryos at the 11th to 12th day of development after vaginal plug. The onset of synthesis of these enzymes is parallel to the differentiation of mitochondria during development. Moreover, the mitochondrial form of the NADP-MDH was used to study the functioning of different alleles at one gene locus during embryonic development. In the heterozygous offspring of the cross CBA x SM/J an electrophoretic pattern was first seen 270 hrs after vaginal plug; the three heteromeric bands of the tetrameric enzyme become visible in a binomial distribution. 295 hrs after fertilization the expected 5-banded pattern of the heterozygote is completed. These findings support the assumption that the different parental alleles at the M-NADP-MDH gene locus start sythesizing synchronously. Similar results are already known for the S-NADP-IDH and S-NADP-MDH.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung DNS-Messungen, Chromosomenanalysen und die Untersuchung individueller Genloci haben eine Diploid-tetraploid-Beziehung in der Fischfamilie Cyprinidae aufgedeckt. Intermediäre DNS-Werte bei einigen diploiden Species dieser Fischfamilie werden als Folge regionaler Duplikationen interpretiert. Die Analyse von 8 verschiedenen Isoenzymsystemen ergab jedoch für diese Species jeweils nur die diploide Anzahl von Genen; das schließt auch den 6-PGD-Locus mit ein, der irrtümlicherweise als dupliziert angesehen worden war. In der Ordnung Isospondyli, in der ebenfalls eine Diploid-tetraploid-Beziehung etabliert ist, gibt jedoch der Stint, Osmerus esperlanus, ein klares Beispiel für die Duplikation einzelner Genloci. Bei diesem Repräsentanden der diploiden Gruppe sind die für die S-AAT und die PGI codierenden Gene dupliziert.
    Notes: Summary DNA measurements, the number of chromosomes and the analysis of individual gene loci revealed a diploid-tetraploid relationship among members of the fish family Cyprinidae. Intermediate DNA values in some diploid species of this family are interpreted as the result of regional duplications. However, the analysis of 8 different isoenzyme systems in these species always confirmed the presence of only the dioploid number of genes; this includes the gene for the enzyme 6-PGD which was erraneously reported to be duplicated. In the order Isospondyli, on the other hand, where a diploid-tetraploid relationship has likewise been established, the smelt, Osmerus esperlanus provides a clear example for the duplication of single genes. In this representative of the diploid group the genes for S-AAT and PGI are duplicated.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary H-Y antigen was determined in eight transsexual patients. Two of the four male-to-female transsexual patients typed as H-Y antigen-negative, while the other two typed as expected from their phenotypic and gonadal sex, namely H-Y antigen-positive. Of the four female-to-male transsexual patients, three typed as H-Y antigen-positive and one was H-Y antigen-negative, as expected. The presence of normal testes in H-Y antigen-negative males is assumed to result from a mutation of nucleotide sequences of the H-Y structural gene for antigenic determinants. Thus, an H-Y is produced with normal receptor-binding activity which can sustain the testis determination of the bipotent gonadal anlage. In the case of H-Y antigen-positive females with normal ovaries a deletion of the autosomally located H-Y structural gene is assumed. This deletion should affect sequences for repressor-binding (as was suggested for H-Y antigen-positive XX-males) and for receptor-binding activity of the H-Y antigen molecule. The resulting H-Y antigen is unable to bind to the gonadal receptor of the bipotent gonadal anlage. Thus an ovary is determined. The relevance of H-Y antigen for the aetiology of transsexualism is discussed.
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