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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 43-48 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper defines situation awareness (SA) and discusses its importance to operator-machine system safety and functioning in the context of process control activities. Specifically, identified are relationships of human detection of critical process cues converying the status of automated control systems and operator interpretation of the meaning and relevance of such information to the potential for negative incidents in chemical processing. Beyond individual operator SA in interacting with control systems, intra- and inter- work team SA are discussed for supporting individual attainment of process control responsibilities. Factors critical to team SA are discussed. “Road blocks” to team SA are also analytically examined. Lastly, methods for assessing individual and team SA are reviewed and vehicles for relating outcomes of these methods to changes in process control operator and team behavior to improve human-machine system safety and performance are relayed.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Human supervisory control and monitoring of automated systems, as well as, passive system(s) information processing can all be classified as forms of out-of-the-loop (OOTL) performance. Whether the operator's task is to decide if process control intervention is necessary, detect a critical system event, or accept or reject the actions of a computer controller, he or she is removed from direct, real-time control of the system. OOTL performance is a critical issue in overall automated systems functioning because it is associated with numerous negative consequences including: (a) operator failure to observe system parameter changes and intervene when necessary (vigilance decrements); (b) human over-trust in computer controllers (complacency); (c) operator loss of system or situation awareness; and (d) operator direct/manual control skill decay. These consequences have been found to impact human performance under both normal operating conditions and system failure modes, with a greater effect on the latter [15] leading to serious problems in operator ability to perform their assigned tasks when working with automated systems.Level of automation (LOA) has been put forth as an approach to ameliorating OOTL performance problems. It is intended to determine the optimal assignment of control between a human operator and computer in order to keep both involved in system operations. LOA considers the capabilities and capacities of both the human and computer controller in determining their optimal coupling. It constitutes a systems approach to resolving OOTL performance problems by minimizing the negative consequences associated with the removal of the operator from active system control, and allows for the strengths of both human decision making and computer processing to be realized. When compared to a technological approach that assesses only the capabilities of the computer in allocating as much responsibility to the machine as possible, and assigning the remaining tasks to the human operator, the advantages can be considerable.A LOA taxonomy will be presented along with research examining its utility in a dynamic control task. Using LOA to identify optimal combinations of human and computer control was found to produce improvements in system performance under intermediate levels. These levels involve joint human and computer control of various system functions, such as monitoring, planning, and option selection and implementation. Results indicated decreases in the number of system processes/tasks overlooked by operators. These improvements may translate into cost reductions due to improved operational safety and are anticipated to be applicable to process control operations.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Situation awareness, a current mental mode of the environment, is critical to the ability of operators to perform complex and dynamic tasks. This should be particularly true for teleoperators, who are separated from the situation they need to be aware of. The design of the man-machine interface must be guided by the goal of maintaining and enhancing situation awareness. The objective of this work has been to build a foundation upon which research in the area can proceed. A model of dynamic human decision making which is inclusive of situation awareness will be presented, along with a definition of situation awareness. A method for measuring situation awareness will also be presented as a tool for evaluating design concepts. The Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) is an objective measure of situation awareness originally developed for the fighter cockpit environment. The results of SAGAT validation efforts will be presented. Implications of this research for teleoperators and other operators of dynamic systems will be discussed.
    Keywords: MAN/SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND LIFE SUPPORT
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center, Human Machine Interfaces for Teleoperators and Virtual Environments; p 119
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: New technologies and operational concept changes have been proposed for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). These changes include improved datalink (CPDLC) technologies for providing improved weather, traffic, Flight Object (FO) and navigation information to the pilot and controller, and new forms of automation for both the flight deck and air traffic management system. In addition, the way business is conducted in the NAS is under consideration. Increases in the discretion provided to pilots (and dispatchers in commercial airlines) are being contemplated in an effort to increase system capacity and flexibility. New concepts of operation (e.g., Collaborative Decision Making and Free Flight) allow for more control to be given to the cockpit or airline with correspondingly greater monitoring responsibilities on the ground. In addition, new technologies and displays make possible much greater information flow between the ground and the cockpit and also dramatic changes in the type of information provided. Designing to support these changes suggests two integrally linked questions: (1) What display technologies and information are needed to support desired changes responsibilities? (2) How will the changes in information availability influence the negotiation process between the cockpit and the ground? Each of these proposed changes (both in technology and operational concept) will have a marked impact on the performance, workload, and Situation Awareness (SA) of both pilots and controllers. Typically such changes are evaluated independently in terms of the effects of the proposed change on either pilot performance or ATC performance. It is proposed here, however, that in order to fully understand the effects of such changes, the joint pilot/controller system must be considered.
    Keywords: Behavioral Sciences
    Type: 17th Digital Avionics Systems Conference; 31 Oct. - 6 Nov. 1998; Seattle, WA; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The effect of shared information is assessed in terms of pilot-controller negotiating behavior and shared situation awareness. Pilot goals and situation awareness requirements are developed and compared against those of air traffic controllers to identify areas of common and competing interest. An exploratory, part-task simulator experiment is described which evaluates the extent to which shared information may lead pilots and controllers to cooperate or compete when negotiating route amendments. Results are presented which indicate that shared information enhances situation awareness and can engender more collaborative interaction between pilots and air traffic controllers. Furthermore, the value of providing controllers with a good-quality weather overlay on their plan view displays is demonstrated. Observed improvements in situation awareness and separation assurance are discussed.
    Keywords: Behavioral Sciences
    Type: Tenth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology; 2-6 May 1999; Columbus, OH; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The effect of shared information is assessed in terms of pilot/controller negotiation and shared situation awareness. Pilot goals and situation awareness requirements are developed and compared against those of air traffic controllers to identify areas of common and competing interest. A part-task simulator experiment is described which probes pilot/controller interaction in areas where common information has the potential to lead to contention, as identified in the comparative analysis. Preliminary results are presented which suggest that shared information can effect more collaborative interaction between pilots and air traffic controllers.
    Keywords: Behavioral Sciences
    Type: 2nd USA/Europe ATM Research and Development Seminar; 1-4 Dec. 1998; Orlando, FL; United States
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Situation awareness is presented as a fundamental requirement for good airmanship, forming the basis for pilot decision making and performance. To develop a better understanding of the role of situation awareness in flying, an analysis was performed to determine the specific situation awareness information requirements for commercial aircraft pilots. This was conducted as a goal-directed task analysis in which pilots' major goals, subgoals, decisions, and associated situation awareness information requirements were delineated based on elicitation from experienced commercial airline pilots. A determination of the major situation awareness information requirements for visual and instrument flight was developed from this analysis, providing a foundation for future system development which seeks to enhance pilot situation awareness and provide a basis for the development of situation awareness measures for commercial flight.
    Keywords: Behavioral Sciences
    Type: ICAT-98-1
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-14
    Description: The focus of this panel is on identifying and discussing the critical human factors challenges facing long duration space flight. Living and working aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will build on the experience humans have had to date aboard the Shuttle and MIR. More extended missions, involving lunar and planetary missions to Mars are being planned. These missions will involve many human factors challenges regarding a number of issues on which more research is needed.
    Keywords: Man/System Technology and Life Support
    Type: Human Factors Engineering Challenges in Long Duration Space Flight; Sep 27, 1999 - Oct 01, 1999; Houston, TX; United States
    Format: text
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