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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Keywords: Key words Lineated sheet flow ; Submarine lava morphology ; Sea-floor eruptions ; Mid-ocean-ridge volcanism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Lineated sheet flows are flat-lying, glassy lava flows characterized by a regular surface pattern of parallel grooves or furrows aligned with the flow direction. They are unique to the submarine environment. We propose that the lineations are developed within the collapsed interiors of partially ponded lobate sheet flows that initially inflate and then drain out during emplacement. During lava drainout, the original lobate crust founders and a new crust begins to grow on the subsiding lava surface. Lineated flow texture is created where molten lava emerges laterally from beneath a growing crust. The lineations are formed by raking of the emerging lava surface by irregularities on the bottom edge of the crust and are preserved owing to rapid chilling by seawater. Therefore, lineated sheet flows are the product of a specific sequence of events over a short period of time during the course of a deep submarine eruption.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1157
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract A dissected terrain resembling a shelf-edge canyon system with individual canyons up to 100 m in relief, 3 km in width, and 10 km in length is found along the south flank of the Cascadia Channel within the central Blanco Transform zone. The channels apparently formed from a combination of downcutting from turbidity currents off the Blanco Ridge and from backcutting due to mass-wasting. The relationships between the transform tectonics and the formation of the canyon are presented in a model which proposes both a direct link via triggering of slides from earthquakes and an indirect link associated with lowering the local base level of Cascadia Channel, thalweg downcutting, and wall-steepening leading to increased mass-wasting.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: A piston core (RC16-57) raised from the northwestern flank of the Ceará Rise contained several turbidites up to 62 cm thick with grain sizes ranging from clay to coarse sand. These turbidites were similar in composition to terrigenous turbidites found throughout the Amazon Cone, continental rise and abyssal plains of the western Equatorial Atlantic. The core site (RC16-57) on the Ceará Rise, however, was 156 m above the level of the adjacent Amazon Cone (the source of the turbidites). Thus the turbidity currents which deposited these beds apparently had to flow upslope for 17 km to reach the core site. Sub-bottom reflectors observed on a 3.5 kHz echogram that extended from the Amazon Cone upslope past the core site suggested that these and deeper turbidites extended from the cone up the rise flank to distances of up to 40 km from the cone/rise boundary and to elevations up to 400 m above the level of the cone at the base of the rise. An equally plausible explanation could be that the turbidity currents that deposited these sediments were in excess of 400 m in thickness and thus would not require uphill flow to reach their observed location on the rise flank. The absence of terrigenous turbidites from the bases of topographic knolls on the continental rise and abyssal plains throughout the western Equatorial Atlantic indicated, however, that turbidity currents were normally less than 100 m thick and hence would seem to rule out this explanation. The average gradient of the rise flank in this region was about 1 : 1000 (\sim 0.5°).
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 350 (1991), S. 416-418 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The lavas that were erupted during the 1980s occur as a series of pillow mounds and ridges between 45á°00.5' N and 45á°09.5' N along the northern Cleft segment (Fig. 1). The evidence for the recent eruption of these lavas was first discovered through a discrepancy between ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Our understanding of submarine volcanic eruptions has improved substantially in the past decade owing to the recent ability to remotely detect such events and to then respond rapidly with synoptic surveys and sampling at the eruption site. But these data are necessarily limited to observations ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions ...
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-02-25
    Description: Brothers volcano, of the Kermadec intraoceanic arc, is host to a hydrothermal system unique among seafloor hydrothermal systems known anywhere in the world. It has two distinct vent fields, known as the NW Caldera and Cone sites, whose geology, permeability, vent fluid compositions, mineralogy, and ore-forming conditions are in stark contrast to each other. The NW Caldera site strikes for ∼600 m in a SW–NE direction with chimneys occurring over a ∼145-m depth interval, between ∼1,690 and 1,545 m. At least 100 dead and active sulfide chimney spires occur in this field and are typically 2–3 m in height, with some reaching 6–7 m. Their ages (at time of sampling) fall broadly into three groups: 〈4, 23, and 35 years old. The chimneys typically occur near the base of individual fault-controlled benches on the caldera wall, striking in lines orthogonal to the slopes. Rarer are massive sulfide crusts 2–3 m thick. Two main types of chimney predominate: Cu-rich (up to 28.5 wt.% Cu) and, more commonly, Zn-rich (up to 43.8 wt.% Zn). Geochemical results show that Mo, Bi, Co, Se, Sn, and Au (up to 91 ppm) are correlated with the Cu mineralization, whereas Cd, Hg, Sb, Ag, and As are associated with the dominant Zn-rich mineralization. The Cone site comprises the Upper Cone site atop the summit of the recent (main) dacite cone and the Lower Cone site that straddles the summit of an older, smaller, more degraded dacite cone on the NE flank of the main cone. Huge volumes of diffuse venting are seen at the Lower Cone site, in contrast to venting at both the Upper Cone and NW Caldera sites. Individual vents are marked by low-relief (≤0.5 m) mounds comprising predominately native sulfur with bacterial mats. Vent fluids of the NW Caldera field are focused, hot (≤300°C), acidic (pH ≥ 2.8), metal-rich, and gas-poor. Calculated end-member fluids from NW Caldera vents indicate that phase separation has occurred, with Cl values ranging from 93% to 137% of seawater values. By contrast, vent fluids at the Cone site are diffuse, noticeably cooler (≤122°C), more acidic (pH 1.9), metal-poor, and gas-rich. Higher-than-seawater values of SO4 and Mg in the Cone vent fluids show that these ions are being added to the hydrothermal fluid and are not being depleted via normal water/rock interactions. Iron oxide crusts 3 years in age cover the main cone summit and appear to have formed from Fe-rich brines. Evidence for magmatic contributions to the hydrothermal system at Brothers includes: high concentrations of dissolved CO2 (e.g., 206 mM/kg at the Cone site); high CO2/3He; negative δD and δ18OH2O for vent fluids; negative δ34S for sulfides (to −4.6‰), sulfur (to −10.2‰), and δ15N2 (to −3.5‰); vent fluid pH values to 1.9; and mineral assemblages common to high-sulfidation systems. Changing physicochemical conditions at the Brothers hydrothermal system, and especially the Cone site, occur over periods of months to hundreds of years, as shown by interlayered Cu + Au- and Zn-rich zones in chimneys, variable fluid and isotopic compositions, similar shifts in 3He/4He values for both Cone and NW Caldera sites, and overprinting of “magmatic” mineral assemblages by water/rock-dominated assemblages. Metals, especially Cu and possibly Au, may be entering the hydrothermal system via the dissolution of metal-rich glasses. They are then transported rapidly up into the system via magmatic volatiles utilizing vertical (∼2.5 km long), narrow (∼300-m diameter) “pipes,” consistent with evidence of vent fluids forming at relatively shallow depths. The NW Caldera and Cone sites are considered to represent stages along a continuum between water/rock- and magmatic/hydrothermal-dominated end-members.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract A seafloor lava field was mapped within the summit caldera of Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge, using SeaMARC I sidescan sonor and submersible observations. By analogy with similar subaerial features, we infer that several volcanic seafloor features here formed by the process of lava flow inflation. Flow inflation occurs within tube-fed lava flows when lava continues to be supplied to the interior of a flow that has ceased advancing, thus uplifting the flow's rigid surface and creating a suite of characteristic surface structures. Inflated lavas require a feeder lava tube or tube system connected to a remote lava source, and therefore we infer that inflated submarine lava flows contain lava tubes. Inflated flow features identified from sidescan sonar images elsewhere on Axial Volcano and within the axial valley of the southern Juan de Fuca ridge suggest that flow inflation is a widespread submarine volcanic process.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: Blanco Transform Fault Zone ; transform fault zone ; pull-apart basin ; propagating rift ; Juan de Fuca
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The right-lateral Blanco Transform Fault Zone (BTFZ) offsets the Gorda and the Juan de Fuca Ridges along a 350 km long complex zone of ridges and right-stepping depressions. The overall geometry of the BTFZ is similar to several other oceanic transform fault zones located along the East Pacific Rise (e.g., Siquieros) and to divergent wrench faults on continents; i.e., long strike-slip master faults offset by extensional basins. These depressions have formed over the past 5 Ma as the result of continual reorientation of the BTFZ in response to changes in plate motion. The central depression (Cascadia Depression) is flanked by symmetrically distributed, inward-facing back-tilted fault blocks. It is probably a short seafloor spreading center that has been operating since about 5 Ma, when a southward propagating rift failed to ‘kill’ the last remnant of a ridge segment. The Gorda Depression on the eastern end of the BTFZ may have initially formed as the result of a similar occurrence involving a northward propagating rift on the Gorda ridge system. Several of the smaller basins (East Blanco, Surveyor and Gorda) morphologically appear to be oceanic analogues of continental pull-apart basins. This would imply diffuse extension rather than the discrete neovolcanic zone associated with a typical seafloor spreading center. The basins along the western half of the BTFZ have probably formed within the last few hundred thousands years, possibly as the result of a minor change in the Juan de Fuca/Pacific relative motion.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0581
    Keywords: Blanco transform fault zone ; earthquakes ; ridge formation ; submersible
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Bathymetric, hydro-acoustic, seismic, submersible, and gravity data are used to investigate the active tectonics of the eastern Blanco Transform Fault Zone (BTFZ). The eastern BTFZ is dominated by the ∼150 km long transform-parallel Blanco Ridge (BR) which is a right-lateral strike-slip fault bordered to the east and west by the Gorda and Cascadia Depressions. Acoustic locations, fault-parameter information, and slip vector estimates of 43 earthquakes (M w≥3.8) that occurred along the eastern BTFZ over the last 5 years reveal that the Blanco Ridge is a high-angle right-lateral strike-slip fault, with a small component of dip-slip motion, where the Juan de Fuca plate is the hanging wall relative to the Pacific plate. Furthermore, the Cascadia and Gorda basins are undergoing normal faulting with extension predominantly oblique to the transform trend. Seafloor submersible observations agree with previous hypotheses that the active transform fault trace is the elongate basin that runs the length of the BR summit. Brecciated and undeformed basalt, diabase, and gabbro samples were collected at the four submersible survey sites along the Blanco Ridge. These petrologic samples indicate the Blanco Ridge is composed of an ocean crustal sequence that has been uplifted and highly fractured. The petrologic samples also appear to show an increase in elevation of the crustal section from east to west along the Blanco Ridge, with gabbros exposed at a shallower depth farther west along the southern (Pacific plate side) BR ridge flank. Further supporting evidence for BR uplift exists in the seismic reflection profiles across the BR showing uplift of turbidite sequences along the north and south ridge base, and gravity and magnetics profiles that indicate possible basement uplift and a low-density zone centered on the ridge's Pacific plate side. The BR formation mechanism preferred here is first, uplift achieved partially through strike-slip motion (with a small dip-slip component). Second, seawater penetration along the fault into the lower crust upper mantle, which then enhanced formation and intrusion of a mantle-derived serpentinized-peridotite diapir into the shallow ocean crust, causing further uplift along the fault.
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