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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Space science reviews 22 (1978), S. 681-715 
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The magnetic field profiles across the magnetopause obtained by the ISEE-1 and -2 spacecraft separated by only a few hundred kilometers are examined for four passes. During one of these passes the magnetosheath field was northward, during one it was slightly southward, and in two it was strongly southward. The velocity of the magnetopause is found to be highly irregular ranging from 4 to over 40 km s-1 and varying in less time than it takes for a spacecraft to cross the boundary. Thicknesses ranged from 500 to over 1000 km. Clear evidence for reconnection is found in the data when the magnetosheath field is southward. However, this evidence is not in the form of classic rotational discontinuity signatures. Rather, it is in the form of flux transfer events, in which reconnection starts and stops in a matter of minutes or less, resulting in the ripping off of flux tubes from the magnetosphere. Evidence for flux transfer events can be found both in the magnetosheath and the outer magnetosphere due to their alteration of the boundary normal. In particular, their presence at the time of magnetopause crossings invalidates the usual 2-dimensional analysis of magnetopause structure. Not only are these flux transfer events probably the dominant means of reconnection on the magnetopause, but they may also serve as an important source of magnetopause oscillations, and hence of pulsations in the outer magnetosphere. On two days the flux transfer rate was estimated to be of the order of 2 × 1012 Maxwells per second by the flux transfer events detected at ISEE. Events not detectable at ISEE and continued reconnection after passage of an FTE past ISEE could have resulted in an even greater reconnection rate at these times.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 305 (1983), S. 612-615 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Figure 1 shows the magnetic field observed by Pioneer Venus over a 24-h period on 10 and 11 February 1982. The data are displayed in solar ecliptic coordinates with the jc-axis pointing towards the Sun and the z-axis pointing towards the ecliptic pole. The lighter trace on these plots shows ISEE3 ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 282 (1979), S. 815-816 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The orbit of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft is inclined at 105 to the ecliptic plane with periapsis at a latitude of 17N and at an altitude of 150 km. This orbital geometry provides shock crossings principally at solar zenith angles of greater than 60. Figure 1 shows several recent shock crossings ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A characteristic of magnetic field reconnection is the acceleration of plasma as it flows across a rotational discontinuity. At the Earth's magnetopause this effect has only been observed recently during a few magnetopause crossings by the ISEE satellites. For one example analysed in detail ...
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 279 (1979), S. 616-618 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Fig. 1 Magnetic field enhancements observed within the ionosphere shortly after periapsis (at 1431.56) on orbit 3 of Pioneer Venus. Before and after this interval, the characteristic ionospheric field strength is less than 10 nT, while the peak field just outside the ionopause is -55 nT. Fig. 2 a, ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A light-weight, low-power, plasma analyzer is described that can be used for measuring the plasma environments of spacecraft with constrained resources. A unique system using a single electrostatic analyzer coupled to a single array of channel electron multipliers allows measurement of the three-dimensional energy per charge distributions of both ions and electrons over E/q ranges from ∼1 eV/q to (approximately-greater-than)40 keV/q. Particles selected by the analyzer are post-accelerated into the multipliers to maintain sensitivity for the lowest energy particles. An instrument using this concept called the magnetospheric plasma analyzer (MPA) is described. Presently, three MPAs are in geosynchronous orbits (GEO) aboard spacecraft with International Designators of 1989-046, 1990-095, and 1991-080. The MPA and its response characteristics are described, and examples of on-orbit data showing some of the MPA capabilities are presented.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Magnetotail observations from the ISEE 3 distant (1983) tail mission taken during the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop 8 (CDAW 8) A and G events are investigated. The ISEE 3 magnetic field, plasma, and energetic particle measurements taken in these two plasmoids have been analyzed and compared with various equilibrium structures and propagating waves/tail oscillation modes. Results indicate general agreement with either the closed-loop (Hones, 1977) or very small pitch angle flux rope (Hughes and Sibeck, 1987; Birn et al., 1989) models of plasmoid structure and poorer agreement with other hypotheses. Calculations based upon typical plasmoid and tail parameters are presented, indicating that the J and B force associated with the disconnected lobe field lines may be sufficient to accelerate plasmoids up to the speeds observed by ISEE 3. Overall, the energy expended in accelerating the plasmoids down the tail appears comparable to that dissipated in the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere. The study produces strong evidence in favor of the plasmoid model of substorm tail dynamics.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 15153-15
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A small, isolated substorm with an expansion phase onset at 0739 UT on January 28, 1983 was well observed by ground-based instrumentation as well as by low- and high-altitude spacecraft. Because of the comprehensive nature of the data coverage, including ISEE-3 identification of plasmoid signatures in the deep tail (about 220 earth radii) associated with the substorm, a detailed timeline of the growth, expansion, and recovery phases of the substorm can be provided. The plasma, energetic particle, and field signatures at ISEE-3 are considered within the framework of the near-earth data. Quantitative estimates of substorm energy input and output relationships are made for this case, and the timing and physical dimensions of the deep tail disturbance implied are evaluated by the global observations available.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 8; 9-10,; 113-115
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Measurements made with the Fast Plasma Experiment on ISEE 1 and 2 reveal that accelerated beams of cold (1-30 eV for H/+/) ions are present sporadically on reconnected field lines within the low latitude boundary layer (LLBI). H(+) normally is the major constituent of these beams, but He(+) and O(+) are also occasionally detected in variable concentrations. Because of the low temperatures and the compositional makeup of these beams, the ionosphere must ultimately be the source of these ions. Observed beam speeds (between 120 and 250 km/s) are always less than that of the magnetosheath ions which penetrate into the LLBL on reconnected field lines, but both ion populations share the same E x B convective drift. Analysis reveals that reflection at the magnetopause cannot be the mechanism accelerating these ions. A more likely possibility is that the ions are accelerated primarily by the large transverse drift of recently reconnected field lines.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 17; 2245-224
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: It is shown from flux transfer event (FTE) occurrence statistics, observed as a function of MLT by the ISEE satellites, that recent 2-dimensional analytic theories of the effects of pulsed Petschek reconnection predict FTEs to contribute between 50 and 200 kV to the total reconnection voltage when the magnetosheath field points southward. The upper limit (200 kV) allows the possibility that FTEs provide all the antisunward transport of open field lines into the tail lobe. This range is compared with the voltages associated with series of FTEs signatures, as inferred from ground-based observations, which are in the range 10-60 kV. We conclude that the contribution could sometimes be made by a series of single, large events; however, the voltage is often likely to be contributed by several FTEs at different MLT.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 22; 10; p. 1185-1188
    Format: text
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