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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Our observations were part of a continuing effort 3'10 to monitor by very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) the expansion of the radio supernova SN1993J. Here we discuss the data obtained on 26 September and 22 November 1993 with emphasis on the latter. We observed at 8.4 GHz with global VLBI ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Transient tectonic deformation has long been noted within ∼100 km of plate boundary fault zones and within active volcanic regions, but it is unknown whether transient motions also occur at larger scales within plates. Relatively localized transients are known to occur as both ...
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: NASA maintains and operates a global network of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Global Navigation Satellite System ground stations as part of the NASA Space Geodesy Program. The NASA Space Geodesy Network (NSGN) provides the geodetic products that support Earth observations and the related science requirements as outlined by the US National Research Council (NRC in Precise geodetic infrastructure: national requirements for a shared resource, National Academies Press, Washington, 2010. http://nap.edu/12954, Thriving on our changing planet: a decadal strategy for Earth observation from space, National Academies Press, Washington, 2018. http://nap.edu/24938). The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) and the NRC have set an ambitious goal of improving the Terrestrial Reference Frame to have an accuracy of 1 mm and stability of 0.1 mm per year, an order of magnitude beyond current capabilities. NASA and its partners within GGOS are addressing this challenge by planning and implementing modern geodetic stations colocated at existing and new sites around the world. In 2013, NASA demonstrated the performance of its next-generation systems at the prototype next-generation core site at NASAs Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory in Greenbelt, Maryland. Implementation of a new broadband VLBI station in Hawaii was completed in 2016. NASA is currently implementing new VLBI and SLR stations in Texas and is planning the replacement of its other aging domestic and international legacy stations. In this article, we describe critical gaps in the current global network and discuss how the new NSGN will expand the global geodetic coverage and ultimately improve the geodetic products. We also describe the characteristics of a modern NSGN site and the capabilities of the next-generation NASA SLR and VLBI systems. Finally, we outline the plans for efficiently operating the NSGN by centralizing and automating the operations of the new geodetic stations.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN63011 , Journal of Geodesy (ISSN 0949-7714) (e-ISSN 1432-1394)
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-08-17
    Description: From a series of simultaneous 8.4 and 2.3 GHz VLBI observations of the quasar 4C 39.25 phase referenced to the radio source 0920+390, carried out in 1990-1992, we have measured the proper motion of component b in 4C 39.25: mu(sub alpha) = 90 +/- 43 (mu)as/yr, mu(sub beta) = 7 +/- 68 (mu)as/yr, where the quoted uncertainties account for the contribution of the statistical standard deviation and the errors assumed for the parameters related to the geometry of the interferometric array, the atmosphere, and the source structure. This proper motion is consistent with earlier interpretations of VLBI hybrid mapping results, which showed an internal motion of this component with respect to other structural components. Our differential astrometry analyses show component b to be the one in motion. Our results thus further constrain models of this quasar.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256); 110; 6; 2586-2596
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We describe and analyze a statistical filtering approach for GRACE data that uses a parametrized model for the temporal evolution of the GRACE coefficients. After least-squares adjustment, a statistical test is performed to assess the significance of the estimated parameters. If the test is passed, the parameters are used by the filter in the reconstruction of the field; otherwise they are rejected. The test is performed, and the filter is formed, separately for annual components of the model and the trend. This new approach is distinct from Gaussian smoothing since it uses the data themselves to test for specific components of the time-varying gravity field. The statistical filter appears inherently to remove most of the "stripes" present in the GRACE fields, although destriping the fields prior to filtering seems to help the trend recovery. We demonstrate that the statistical filter produces reasonable maps for the annual components and trend. We furthermore assess the statistical filter for the annual components using ground-based GPS data in South America by assuming that the annual component of the gravity signal is associated only with groundwater storage. The un-destriped, statistically filtered field has a X2 value relative to the GPS data consistent with the best result from smoothing. In the space domain, the statistical filters are qualitatively similar to Gaussian smoothing. Unlike Gaussian smoothing, however, the statistical filter has significant sidelobes, including large negative sidelobes on the north-south axis, potentially revealing information on the errors, and the correlations among the errors, for the GRACE coefficients.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 113
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: GRACE data indicate large seasonal variations in gravity that are assumed to be related to climate-driven fluxes of space water. Seasonal redistribution of surface mass should deform the Earth, and our calculations using GRACE data suggest vertical deformations of approx. 13 mm in the region of greatest flux, the Amazon River Basin. To test the GRACE gravity-hydrology connection, we analyzed GPS data acquired from sites in this region. After accounting for degree 1 variations not observable with GRACE, we find that annual deformation measured with GPS correlates highly with predictions calculated from GRACE measurements. These results confirm the variations in surface water sensed by GRACE, which are significantly larger than those predicted by some hydrology models. The results also demonstrate that GRACE can be an important tool for monitoring deformation of the Earth, and suggest that combined analysis of GRACE and GPS may be a useful approach for estimation of geocenter variations.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 31
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We built a device for translating a GPS antenna on a positioning table to simulate the ground motions caused by an earthquake. The earthquake simulator is accurate to better than 0.1 mm in position, and provides the "ground truth" displacements for assessing the technique of high-rate GPS. We found that the root-mean-square error of the 1-Hz GPS position estimates over the 15-min duration of the simulated seismic event was 2.5 mm, with approximately 96% of the observations in error by less than 5 mm, and is independent of GPS antenna motion. The error spectrum of the GPS estimates is approximately flicker noise, with a 50% decorrelation time for the position error of approx.1.6 s. We that, for the particular event simulated, the spectrum of dependent error in the GPS measurements. surface deformations exceeds the GPS error spectrum within a finite band. More studies are required to determine whether a generally optimal bandwidth exists for a target group of seismic events.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 33
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: The definition of the term "geocenter motion" depends on the adopted origin of the reference frame. Common reference frames used in Space Geodesy include: the center of mass of the whole Earth (CM), the center of mass of the Solid Earth without mass load (CE), and the center of figure of the outer surface of the Solid Earth (CF). There are two established definitions of the term geocenter: one, the vector offset of CF relative to CM and, two, the reverse, the vector offset of CM relative to CF. Obviously, their amplitude is the same and their phase differs by 180 deg. Following Dong et al. [2003], we label the first X(sub CF, sup CM) and the second X(sup CF, sup CM) (i.e., the superscript represents the frame, the subscript represents any point in the frame).
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: We have analyzed two epochs of 6 cm very long base interferometry (VLBI) observations of the two brightest images, A and B, of the gravitationally lensed quasar 0957+561 in a search for correlated structural evolution from which to estimate delta tau(sub BA), the difference in propagation time for light traveling between the quasar and Earth along the paths corresponding to these two images. However, we detected only marginal increases in the separation between the core and the innermost jet component in each image over the 2 year interval 1987-1989. Because monitoring image brightness variations has since led to apparently reliable estimates of delta tau(sub BA), we intend to use spatial variations in the relative magnification field across the extent of the images to constrain further the mass distribution of the lens, which is now the principal contributor to the uncertainty in estimates of H(sub 0) from this lens system.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 426; 2; p. 486-492
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We have determined with VLBI the position of the compact nonthermal radio source at the Galactic Center, commonly referred to as SgrA*, in the J2000.0 reference frame of extragalactic radio sources. We have also determined the size of SgrA* at 1.3, 3.6, and 13 cm wavelengths and found that the apparent size of the source increases proportionally to the observing wavelength squared, as expected from source size broadening by interstellar scattering and as reported previously by other authors. We have also established an upper limit of about 8 mJy at 3.6 cm wavelength for any ultracompact component. The actual size of the source is less than 15 AU. Fourier analysis of our very sensitive 3.6 cm observations of this source shows no significant variations of correlated flux density on time scales from 12 to 700 s.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: Astronomy and Astrophysics (ISSN 0004-6361); 258; 2; p. 295-301.
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