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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Lidar measurements can provide a great deal of information about the structure, location, and scattering properties of cirrus clouds. However, caution must be used when interpreting raw lidar backscatter profiles in terms of relative or absolute extinction distribution, internal cloud structure, and, at times, cloud location. The problem arises because the signal measured from a range by any monostatic lidar system depends on the backscatter cross section at that range and the 2-way optical thickness to the scattering volume. Simple lidar systems, however, produce only one measurement of attenuated backscatter from each range. The general FIRE research community is given aid in interpretation of lidar measurements, and the special capabilities of the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) is explained. Some examples are given of conditions under which direct interpretation of cirrus cloud morphology from simple lidar profiles could be misleading.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, FIRE Science Results 1988; p 177-181
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Cirrus clouds reflect incoming solar radiation and trap outgoing terrestrial radiation; therefore, accurate estimation of the global energy balance depends upon knowledge of the optical and physical properties of these clouds. Scattering and absorption by cirrus clouds affect measurements made by many satellite-borne and ground based remote sensors. Scattering of ambient light by the cloud, and thermal emissions from the cloud can increase measurement background noise. Multiple scattering processes can adversely affect the divergence of optical beams propagating through these clouds. Determination of the optical thickness and the vertical and horizontal extent of cirrus clouds is necessary to the evaluation of all of these effects. Lidar can be an effective tool for investigating these properties. During the FIRE cirrus IFO in Oct. to Nov. 1986, the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was operated from a rooftop site on the campus of the University of Wisconsin at Madison, Wisconsin. Approximately 124 hours of fall season data were acquired under a variety of cloud optical thickness conditions. Since the IFO, the HSRL data set was expanded by more than 63.5 hours of additional data acquired during all seasons. Measurements are presented for the range in optical thickness and backscattering phase function of the cirrus clouds, as well as contour maps of extinction corrected backscatter cross sections indicating cloud morphology. Color enhanced images of range-time indicator (RTI) displays a variety of cirrus clouds with approximately 30 sec time resolution are presented. The importance of extinction correction on the interpretation of cloud height and structure from lidar observations of optically thick cirrus are demonstrated.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, FIRE Science Results 1988; p 49-53
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The determination of cirrus cloud pressure altitude and IR attenuation using CO2 channel radiometric data from the VISSR (Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) on board the GOES geostationary satellite is discussed. The independent ground-based determination of cirrus cloud altitude, thickness, and optical properties obtained with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) is described. HSRL cirrus cloud measurements are compared to VAS CO2 cloud top height retrievals generated for the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment cirrus intensive Field Observations, held in Wisconsin in October and November of 1986.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: AIAA PAPER 89-0804
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2004-12-04
    Description: This paper reviews the current status of lidar image correlation techniques of remote wind measurement. It also examines the potential use of satellite borne lidar global wind measurements using this approach. Lidar systems can easily detect spatial variations in the volume scattering cross section of naturally occurring aerosols. Lidar derived RHI, PPI and range-time displays of aerosol backscatter have been extensively employed in the study of atmospheric structure. Descriptions of this type of data can be obtained in many references including Kunkel et al. (1977), Kunkel et al. (1980), Boers et al. (1984), Uthe et al. (1980), Melfi et al. (1985) and Browell et al. (1983). It is likely that the first space-borne lidars for atmospheric studies will observe aerosol backscatter to measure parameters such as boundary layer depth and cloud height. This paper examines the potential application of these relatively simple aerosol backscatter lidars to global wind measurements.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center, Proceedings of the NASA Symposium on Global Wind Measurements; p 163-165
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: Estimates of the effect of pulse stretching on satellite laser altimetry in particular the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), by cloud multiple scattering were made from an analytical method and from Monte Carlo calculations. The path delay of the return pulse was found to be largest for low-level clouds with particle radii (3-20 microns). The magnitude of the path delay was affected by several factors including cloud height, cloud optical depth, cloud particle size, particle shape, and receiver field of view. Polar aerosol and Rayleigh scattering usually added less than 1 cm to the overall path delay. Path delay estimates for all cloud conditions would be less if a simple Gaussian fit of the return pulse peak were used to measure the pulse's centroid. However, care must be taken in determining the centroid as factors such as pulse width, surface slope and the fitting method used will affect the estimate. A planned application for laser altimetry is high precision monitoring of the height change of polar ice sheets. In the absence of a correction algorithm, the required GLAS altimetry accuracies will not be achieved unless atmospheric channel information is used to remove profiles that are likely to be heavily contaminated by multiple scattering.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Remote Sensing
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The University of Wisconsin volume imaging lidar has been used to portray images of the three-dimensional structure of clear air convective plumes in the atmosphere surrounding the flight path of the instrumented Twin Otter aircraft operated by the National Aeronautical Establishment of Canada. Lidar images provide a context for interpretation of the aircraft measurements. The position of data points within a convective element can be determined and the temporal development of the plume can be observed to time the observation with respect to the life cycle of the plume. Plots of the vertical flux of water vapor, superimposed on lidar images clearly demonstrate the well-known sampling difficulties encountered when attempting to measure fluxes near the top of the convective layer. When loran was used to determine average aircraft velocity, flight-leg-averaged horizontal winds measured by the aircraft and area-averaged winds measured by lidar agree to within 0.2 m/s in speed and 1 deg in direction.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; D17; p. 18,383-18,393.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Preliminary measurement results are presented from the Cirrus Remote Sensing Pilot Experiment which used a unique suite of instruments to simultaneously retrieve cirrus cloud visible and IR optical properties, while addressing the disparities between satellite volume averages and local point measurements. The experiment employed a ground-based high resolution interferometer sounder (HIS) and a second Fourier transform spectrometer to measure the spectral radiance in the 4-20 micron band, a correlated high spectral resolution lidar, a volume imaging lidar, a CLASS radiosonde system, the Scripps Whole Sky Imager, and multispectral VAS, HIRS, and AVHRR satellite data from polar orbiting and geostationary satellites. Data acquired during the month long experiment included continuous daytime monitoring with the Whole Sky Imager.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Conference on Atmospheric Radiation; July 23-27, 1990; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: From August 2012 to February 2013 a High Resolution Spectral Lidar (HSRL; 532 nm) was deployed at that National University of Singapore near a NASA Micro Pulse Lidar NETwork (MPLNET; 527 nm) site. A primary objective of the MPLNET lidar project is the production and dissemination of reliable Level 1 measurements and Level 2 retrieval products. This paper characterizes and quantifies error in Level 2 aerosol optical property retrievals conducted through inversion techniques that derive backscattering and extinction coefficients from MPLNET elastic single-wavelength datasets. MPLNET Level 2 retrievals for aerosol optical depth and extinction/backscatter coefficient profiles are compared with corresponding HSRL datasets, for which the instrument collects direct measurements of each using a unique optical configuration that segregates aerosol and cloud backscattered signal from molecular signal. The intercomparison is performed, and error matrices reported, for lower (0-5km) and the upper (〉5km) troposphere, respectively, to distinguish uncertainties observed within and above the MPLNET instrument optical overlap regime.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN32689 , SPIE Proceedings Lidar Technologies, Techniques, and Measurements for Atmospheric Remote Sensing X; 9246; 92460C
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: An approximate equation is developed which describes the contribution of Nth order scattering to a lidar return. This development assumes a homogeneous scattering medium characterized by a scattering function sharply peaked in the forward direction and relatively insensitive to angle near the backscatter direction. The derivation includes the effects of finite divergence of the transmitted laser beam, finite receiver field of view, finite separation between the laser and the receiver and nonparallel system alignment. The derivation presented uses small angle approximations to reduce the time dependent multiple scattering problem to a time independent form which is then solved with techniques previously developed for multiple small angle nuclear scattering.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: Fifth Conference on Laser Radar Studies of the Atmosphere June 4-6, 1973, Hilton Inn, Williamsburg, Virginia: Conference Abstracts; 21-23|Conference on Laser Radar Studies of the Atmosphere; 4-6 Jun. 1973; Williamsburg, VA; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The impact of cirrus clouds on the heat balance of the Earth is dependent on their reflectivity of solar radiation and their absorptivity of terrestrial radiation. Any prediction of cloud cover changes that accompany climate change will have to know whether the visible/IR radiative characteristics of the clouds will also change. Few measurements of cirrus clouds have been made where both visible and IR data were collected simultaneously. To obtain the visible optical depths of cirrus clouds, the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the Volume Imaging Lidar (VIL) were used. The VIL produced visible backscatter images of the clouds by scanning across the wind. Time advection was used to construct a horizontal image of visible backscatter from the VIL data. The HSRL was used to calibrate the VIL signal into backscatter cross sections of particulates.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: American Meteorological Society; 23-28 Jan. 1994; Nashville, TN; United States|Lidar Observations of the Optical Properties and 3-Dimensional Structure of Cirrus Clouds; NASA-CR-201403
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