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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of fish biology 67 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Two small demersal fishes, the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus and the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, were quantified on soft bottoms at 20–40 m depth in the Baltic Sea, using a camera placed above the bottom. The largest numbers of gobies were seen following the settlement of young in late summer and autumn. Most recorded fishes were sand gobies. An annual average of 4·7 individuals m−2(0·24 g dry mass m−2) was recorded in 1983–1985 and 2·5 individuals m−2(0·13 g m−2) in 1997–1998. Using these densities, the annual goby food consumption was estimated to 100 kJ m−2 in 1983–1985 and 50 kJ m−2 in 1997–1998, corresponding to most of the annual macrobenthos production available to the gobies. The resulting goby production, assumed equal to 25% of the food consumed, must have been an important food source for the larger fishes occasionally recorded in the photographs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: anthropogenic ; atmospheric deposition ; eutrophication ; fertilizer ; nitrogen ; nitrogen budget ; nitrogen fixation ; N:P ratio ; phosphorus ; pristine ; rivers ; temperate ; tropical
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr−1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic region of 13.1 Tg yr−1 . On a per area basis, however, the largest nitrogen fluxes are found in the highly disturbed watersheds around the North Sea, in northwestern Europe, and in the northeastern U.S., all of which have riverine nitrogen fluxes greater than 1,000 kg N km−2 yr−1. Non-point sources of nitrogen dominate riverine fluxes to the coast in all regions. River fluxes of total nitrogen from the temperate regions of the North Atlantic basin are correlated with population density, as has been observed previously for fluxes of nitrate in the world's major rivers. However, more striking is a strong linear correlation between river fluxes of total nitrogen and the sum of anthropogenically-derived nitrogen inputs to the temperate regions (fertilizer application, human-induced increases in atmospheric deposition of oxidized forms of nitrogen, fixation by leguminous crops, and the import/export of nitrogen in agricultural products). On average, regional nitrogen fluxes in rivers are only 25% of these anthropogenically derived nitrogen inputs. Denitrification in wetlands and aquatic ecosystems is probably the dominant sink, with storage in forests perhaps also of importance. Storage of nitrogen in groundwater, although of importance in some localities, is a very small sink for nitrogen inputs in all regions. Agricultural sources of nitrogen dominate inputs in many regions, particularly the Mississippi basin and the North Sea drainages. Deposition of oxidized nitrogen, primarily of industrial origin, is the major control over river nitrogen export in some regions such as the northeastern U.S. Using data from relatively pristine areas as an index of change, we estimate that riverine nitrogen fluxes in many of the temperate regions have increased from pre-industrial times by 2 to 20 fold, although some regions such as northern Canada are relatively unchanged. Fluxes from the most disturbed region, the North Sea drainages, have increased by 6 to 20 fold. Fluxes from the Amazon basin are also at least 2 to 5 fold greater than estimated fluxes from undisturbed temperate-zone regions, despite low population density and low inputs of anthropogenic nitrogen to the region. This suggests that natural riverine nitrogen fluxes in the tropics may be significantly greater than in the temperate zone. However, deforestation may be contributing to the tropical fluxes. In either case, projected increases in fertilizer use and atmospheric deposition in the coming decades are likely to cause dramatic increases in nitrogen loading to many tropical river systems.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: continental shelf ; estuaries ; mass balance ; nitrogen ; North Atlantic ; nutrient budget ; phosphorus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Five large rivers that discharge on the western North Atlantic continental shelf carry about 45% of the nitrogen (N) and 70% of the phosphorus (P) that others estimate to be the total flux of these elements from the entire North Atlantic watershed, including North, Central and South America, Europe, and Northwest Africa. We estimate that 61 · 109 moles y−1 of N and 20 · 109 moles y−1 of P from the large rivers are buried with sediments in their deltas, and that an equal amount of N and P from the large rivers is lost to the shelf through burial of river sediments that are deposited directly on the continental slope. The effective transport of active N and P from land to the shelf through the very large rivers is thus reduced to 292 · 109 moles y−1 of N and 13 · 109 moles y−1 of P. The remaining riverine fluxes from land must pass through estuaries. An analysis of annual total N and total P budgets for various estuaries around the North Atlantic revealed that the net fractional transport of these nutrients through estuaries to the continental shelf is inversely correlated with the log mean residence time of water in the system. This is consistent with numerous observations of nutrient retention and loss in temperate lakes. Denitrification is the major process responsible for removing N in most estuaries, and the fraction of total N input that is denitrified appears to be directly proportional to the log mean water residence time. In general, we estimate that estuarine processes retain and remove 30–65% of the total N and 10–55% of the total P that would otherwise pass into the coastal ocean. The resulting transport through estuaries to the shelf amounts to 172–335 · 109 moles y−1 of N and 11–19 · 109 moles y−1 of P. These values are similar to the effective contribution from the large rivers that discharge directly on the shelf. For the North Atlantic shelf as a whole, N fluxes from major rivers and estuaries exceed atmospheric deposition by a factor of 3.5–4.7, but this varies widely among regions of the shelf. For example, on the U.S. Atlantic shelf and on the northwest European shelf, atmospheric deposition of N may exceed estuarine exports. Denitrification in shelf sediments exceeds the combined N input from land and atmosphere by a factor of 1.4–2.2. This deficit must be met by a flux of N from the deeper ocean. Burial of organic matter fixed on the shelf removes only a small fraction of the total N and P input (2–12% of N from land and atmosphere; 1–17% of P), but it may be a significant loss for P in the North Sea and some other regions. The removal of N and P in fisheries landings is very small. The gross exchange of N and P between the shelf and the open ocean is much larger than inputs from land and, for the North Atlantic shelf as a whole, it may be much larger than the N and P removed through denitrification, burial, and fisheries. Overall, the North Atlantic continental shelf appears to remove some 700–950· 109 moles of N each year from the deep ocean and to transport somewhere between 18 and 30 · 109 moles of P to the open sea. If the N and P associated with riverine sediments deposited on the continental slope are included in the total balance, the net flux of N to the shelf is reduced by 60 · 109 moles y−1 and the P flux to the ocean is increased by 20 · 109 moles y−1. These conclusions are quite tentative, however, because of large uncertainties in our estimates of some important terms in the shelf mass balance.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The muds of a shallow (7 m) site in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island contained higher abundances of meiofauna (averaging 17×106 individuals per m2 and ash free dry weight of 2.9 g/m2 during a 3 year period) than have been found in any other sediment. The majority of sublittoral muds, worldwide, have been reported to contain about 106 individuals per m2. This difference is attributed primarily to differences in sampling techniques and laboratory processing. Extremely high meiofaunal abundances may have also occurred because Narragansett Bay sediments were a foodrich environment. While the quantity of organic deposition in the bay is not unusually high for coastal waters, this input, primarily composed of diatom detritus, may contain an unusually high proportion of labile organics. Furthermore, meiofauna could have thrived because of spatial segregation of meiofauna and macrofauna. While meiofauna were concentrated at the sediment-water interface, most macrofauna were subsurface deposit feeders. Macrofaunal competition with, and ingestion of meiofauna may thus have been minimized. The seasonal cycles of meiofauna and macrofauna were similar. Highest abundances and biomass were observed in May and June and lowest values in the late summer and fall. Springtime increases of meiofaunal abundance were observed in all depth horizons, to 10 cm. We hypothesize that phytoplankton detritus accumulated in the sediment during the winter and early spring, and that the benthos responded to this store of food when temperatures rose rapidly in the late spring. By late summer, the stored detritus was exhausted and the benthos declined.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The “Tsesis” oil spill in October 1977 resulted in the release of over 1 000 tons of medium grade fuel oil in an archipelago in the brackish Baltic Sea. Considerable oil quantities reached the benthos by sedimentation. Within 16 d benthic amphipods of the genus Pontoporeia, as well as the polychaete Harmothoe sarsi Kinberg, showed reduction to less than 5% of pre-spill biomasses at the most impacted station. The clam Macoma balthica (L.) was more resistant, and showed little or no mortality, but was heavily contaminated by oil (about 2 000 μg g-1 dry wt total hydrocarbons). The meiofauna was strongly affected, with ostracods, harpacticoids, Turbellaria and kinorhynchs showing clear reductions in abundance, while nematodes, as a group, were more resistant. In the winter following the spill gravid Pontoporeia affinis Lindström females showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of abnormal or undifferentiated eggs. Food-chain transfer of oil to flounder [Platichthys flesus (L.)] was indicated. Not until the second summer after the spill were the first signs of recovery noted at the most heavily impacted station: Amphipods, H. sarsi and harpacticoids increased and the oil concentrations in M. balthica decreased (to about 1 000 μg g-1). In the area where amphipods had been virtually eliminated, there was an unusually heavy recruitment of M. balthica, reaching 4 000 juveniles, of 1.5–2 mm length, per square metre, probably from settling in summer 1978. Three years after the spill Pontoporeia spp. biomass was still depressed in the most affected area, while H. sarsi showed normal biomass, and M. balthica abundance was inflated. Oil concentrations in M. balthica (about 250 μg g-1) and flounder were only slightly elevated and the oil could no longer be confidently ascribed to “Tsesis” origin, even using GC/MS-analysis. Recovery was thus underway, but the long lifespan of M. balthica implies that the disturbed community composition may persist for many years at this station. Full recovery is likely to require more than 5 yr and may take a decade or more. An effort to evaluate the accumulated monetary loss to fishery from the accident indicates that direct costs of shoreline cleanup and vessel damage were considerably greater.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-11-25
    Description: Changes in the phenology of physical and ecological variables associated with climate change are likely to have significant effect on many aspects of the Baltic ecosystems. We apply a set of phenological indicators to multiple environmental variables measured by satellite sensors for 17–35 years to detect possible changes in the seasonality in the Baltic Sea environment. We detect significant temporal changes such as earlier start of the summer season and prolongation of the productive season in multiple variables ranging from basic physical drivers to ecological status indicators. While increasing trends in the absolute values of variables like sea-surface temperature (SST), diffuse attenuation of light (Ked490) and satellite-detected chlorophyll concentration (CHL) are detectable, the corresponding changes in their seasonal cycles are more dramatic. For example, the cumulative sum of 30 000 W m−2 of surface incoming shortwave irradiance (SIS) was reached 23 days earlier in 2014 compared to the beginning of the time series in 1983. The period of the year with SST of at least 17 °C has almost doubled (from 29 days in 1982 to 56 days in 2014), the period with Ked490 over 0.4 m−1 has increased from about 60 days in 1998 to 240 days in 2013, i.e. quadrupled. The period with satellite-detected CHL of at least 3 mg m−3 has doubled from approximately 110 days in 1998 to 220 days in 2013. While the timing of both the phytoplankton spring and summer blooms have advanced, the annual CHL maximum that in the 1980s corresponded to the spring diatom bloom in May has now switched to the summer cyanobacteria bloom in July.
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 7
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2008-08-06
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2008-12-10
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-07-04
    Description: Cyanobacteria, primarily of the species \textit{Nodularia spumigena}, form extensive surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea in July and August, ranging from diffuse flakes to dense surface scums. The area of these accumulations can reach ~ 200 000 km2. We describe the compilation of a 35-year-long time series (1979–2013) of cyanobacteria surface accumulations in the Baltic Sea using multiple satellite sensors. This appears to be one of the longest satellite-based time series in biological oceanography. The satellite algorithm is based on remote sensing reflectance of the water in the red band, a measure of turbidity. Validation of the satellite algorithm using horizontal transects from a ship of opportunity showed the strongest relationship with phycocyanin fluorescence (an indicator of cyanobacteria), followed by turbidity and then by chlorophyll a fluorescence. The areal fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations (FCA) and the total accumulated area affected (TA) were used to characterize the intensity and extent of the accumulations. The fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations was calculated as the ratio of the number of detected accumulations to the number of cloud-free sea-surface views per pixel during the season (July–August). The total accumulated area affected was calculated by adding the area of pixels where accumulations were detected at least once during the season. The fraction with cyanobacteria accumulations and TA were correlated (R2 = 0.55) and both showed large interannual and decadal-scale variations. The average FCA was significantly higher for the second half of the time series (13.8%, 1997–2013) than for the first half (8.6%, 1979–1996). However, that does not seem to represent a long-term trend but decadal-scale oscillations. Cyanobacteria accumulations were common in the 1970s and early 1980s (FCA between 11–17%), but rare (FCA below 4%) during 1985–1990; they increased again starting in 1991 and particularly in 1999, reaching maxima in FCA (~ 25%) and TA (~ 210 000 km2) in 2005 and 2008. After 2008, FCA declined to more moderate levels (6–17%). The timing of the accumulations has become earlier in the season, at a mean rate of 0.6 days per year, resulting in approximately 20 days advancement during the study period. The interannual variations in FCA are positively correlated with the concentration of chlorophyll a during July–August sampled at the depth of ~ 5 m by a ship of opportunity, but interannual variations in FCA are more pronounced as the coefficient of variation is over 5 times higher.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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