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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-01-01
    Description: The pore-densities (PD) in the tests of 232 specimens of the shallow infaunal foraminiferal species Bolivina spissa from eight locations off the Peruvian continental margin were investigated and compared to different environmental factors as water-depth, temperature, bottom-water oxygen ([O2]BW) and nitrate concentrations ([NO3-]BW). There is a negative exponential PD-[O2]BW correlation, but at oxygen-concentrations 〉10 {micro}mol/l PD approaches a constant value without any further correlation to [O2]BW. The PD-[NO3-]BW relationship is better constrained than that for PD-[O2]BW. We hypothesize that the pores in the tests of B. spissa largely reflect the intracellular nitrate, and to a smaller extent the oxygen respiration. We also compared PD and porosity (P) of two single B.spissa and B.seminuda specimens from the same habitat. The comparison showed that P is significantly higher in B.seminuda than in B. spissa indicating that B.seminuda is much better adapted to strong oxygen-depleted habitats than B.spissa.
    Print ISSN: 0096-1191
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-07-01
    Description: During the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT, ca. 34 Ma), Earth's climate cooled significantly from a greenhouse to an icehouse climate, while the calcite (CaCO3) compensation depth (CCD) in the Pacific Ocean increased rapidly. Fluctuations in the CCD could result from various processes that create an imbalance between calcium (Ca) sources to, and sinks from, the ocean (e.g., weathering and CaCO3 deposition), with different effects on the isotopic composition of dissolved Ca in the oceans due to differences in the Ca isotopic composition of various inputs and outputs. We used Ca isotope ratios ({delta}44/40Ca) of coeval pelagic marine barite and bulk carbonate to evaluate changes in the marine Ca cycle across the EOT. We show that the permanent deepening of the CCD was not accompanied by a pronounced change in seawater {delta}44/40Ca, whereas time intervals in the Neogene with smaller carbonate depositional changes are characterized by seawater {delta}44/40Ca shifts. This suggests that the response of seawater {delta}44/40Ca to changes in weathering fluxes and to imbalances in the oceanic alkalinity budget depends on the chemical composition of seawater. A minor and transient fluctuation in the Ca isotope ratio of bulk carbonate may reflect a change in isotopic fractionation associated with CaCO3 precipitation from seawater due to a combination of factors, including changes in temperature and/or in the assemblages of calcifying organisms.
    Print ISSN: 0091-7613
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2682
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-06-07
    Description: Precisely quantifying the current climate-related sea level change requires accurate knowledge of long-term geological processes known as Glacial Isostatic Adjustments (GIA). Although the major post-glacial melting phase is likely to have ended ~6-4 ka BP (before present), GIA is still significantly affecting the present-day vertical position of the mean sea surface and the sea bottom. Here we present empirical rsl (relative sea level) data based on U/Th dated fossil corals from reef platforms of the Society Islands, French Polynesia, together with the corresponding GIA-modelling. Fossil coral data constrains the timing and amplitude of rsl-variations after the Holocene sea level maximum (HSLM). Upon correction for isostatic island subsidence, we find that local rsl was at least ~1.5±0.4 m higher than present at ~5.4 ka. Later, minor amplitude variations occurred until ~2 ka, when the rsl started dropping to its present position with a rate of ~0.4 mm/year. The data match with predicted rsl curves based on global ice-sheet chronologies confirming the role of GIA-induced ocean siphoning effect throughout the mid to late Holocene. A long lasting Late Holocene highstand superimposed with second order amplitudinal fluctuations as seen from our data suggest that the theoretical predicted timing of rsl change can still be refined pending future calibration.
    Electronic ISSN: 1525-2027
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-31
    Description: Abstract High-latitude cold-water coral reefs are particularly vulnerable to climate change due to enhanced CO2 uptake in these regions. To evaluate their physiological functioning and potential application as pH archives, we retrieved both recent and fossil samples of Lophelia pertusa along the Norwegian margin from Oslofjord (59°N), over to Trondheimsfjord, Sula and Lopphavet (70.6°N). Boron isotope analyses (δ11B) were undertaken using solution-based and laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS; LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Epi-fluorescence microscopy was employed to provide a rapid pre-screening routine for structure-specific subsampling in the coral skeleton. This integrated approach enabled us to assess heterogeneities within single specimens, as well as to investigate the role of local environmental influences including recent and past variations. All three mass spectrometry methods show substantial differences in the δ11B of the theca wall (TW) and the centres of calcification (COC's). Micro-bulk subsamples milled from the theca wall of modern specimens originating from different habitats but with comparable seawater pH (8–8.16) gave consistent δ11B values averaging 26.7 (±0.2‰, 2σ, n = 4), while COC subsamples systematically deviated towards lower B/Ca (by ~40%) and depleted δ11B values (minimum 22.7 ± 0.3‰, 2σ), implying a difference of at least 4‰ between TW and COC. SIMS and LA-ICP-MS measurements identified much larger internal heterogeneities with maximum variation of ~10‰ between the distinct skeletal structures; minimal SIMS δ11B values of ~17.3 ± 1.2‰ (2σ) were associated with the pure COC material. Our findings may be interpreted in terms of the occurrence of two main, but likely different, biomineralisation mechanisms in L. pertusa, with the COC's generally exhibiting minimal pH up-regulation, potentially supporting the use of bicarbonate in the early stages of biomineralisation. Furthermore, we highlight the potential utility of L. pertusa for palaeo-proxy studies if targeting the compositionally homogenous TW zones devoid of COC admixtures, which appear to provide highly reproducible measurements.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-03-01
    Description: Major changes in community structure and depositional relief of high-latitude coral communities in the southern Persian Gulf between marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 and the present day suggest that the area has become increasingly restricted. Corals and bivalves from outcrops on Kish Island, Iran, were identified in order to interpret the Late Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental setting. U/Th disequilibrium dating was used to constrain the ages of the stratigraphic units. During MIS 7, two coral-bearing sequences were deposited on what is now Kish Island. The lower sequence is dated as MIS 7.5 and changes laterally from an assemblage dominated by Cyphastrea sp. and Platygyra daedalea in the west to one characterized by branching Montipora in the east. By contrast, the upper sequence, dated as MIS 7.1, transitions from an assemblage dominated by platy Montipora in the west to a diverse assemblage of Platygyra and other faviids in the east. The assemblages of both sequences are within a marl matrix and bounded by thin lithified mollusc-rich layers. Corals and bivalves indicate that the sequences were deposited on gentle slopes in sheltered environments less than 20 m deep. The MIS 7 deposits may be classified as coral carpets or biostromes that developed a low-relief framework. During MIS 5, coral communities were no longer framework building and are now limited to an Acropora -rich layer of coral rubble that covers large parts of the island, and two small incipient reefs with sparse faviids. Similarities between the MIS 5 and modern nearshore coral communities suggest that the environmental conditions during MIS 5 were comparable to those of today. The late Pleistocene coral carpets and non-framework coral communities of the southern Persian Gulf may serve as models for coral biostromes in the fossil record, which formed under restricted environmental conditions such as elevated terrigenous input, high turbidity, and strong seasonal changes in temperature and/or salinity. ©2012 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 1437-3254
    Electronic ISSN: 1437-3262
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2003-07-01
    Description: The Caucasian orogenic wedge formed as a consequence of the closure of the Tethyan Ocean, and numerous fields of active mud volcanoes pepper the area adjacent to the Black and Caspian Seas. Stable isotope ratios of boron, helium, and carbon have been measured for gas, fluid and sediment samples from active mud volcanoes of Taman Peninsula and Georgia to estimate the sources and mobilization depths of the fluid phase and mud. Boron concentrations in mud volcano fluids were found to be 5–35× higher than seawater. Fluid isotope ratios vary between δ11B=22 and 39‰, while isotope ratios of the smectite- and illite-rich extruded mud are considerably depleted in heavy 11B (δ11B=−8 to +7‰). B contents of these muds are ~8× higher than modern marine sediments. This suggests that liquefaction prior to mud volcanism was accompanied by both B enrichment and isotope fractionation, most likely at an intermediate depth mud reservoir at 2–4 km. The hydrocarbon-generating source beds to the mud volcanoes are located at 7 to 〉10 km depth in the folded Maikop Formation and are of proposed Oligocene–Miocene age. The most likely mechanism is re-hydration of these shales by both hydrocarbons and a geochemically mature fluid from greater depth within the orogenic wedge. Such a deep fluid source is supported by our results from gas analyses, which imply an admixture of minor amounts (less than 1%vol) of 3He (Georgia), thermogenic 13C in methane as well as "ultraheavy" 13C in CO2 (both Taman and Georgia). The overall results attest active local flow of geochemically different fluids along deep-seated faults penetrating the two study areas in the Caucasian orogenic wedge, with the waters as well as the gases coming from below the Maikop Formation. ©2003 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 1437-3254
    Electronic ISSN: 1437-3262
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-10-01
    Description: Authigenic carbonates and seep biota are archives of seepage history and record paleo-environmental conditions at seep sites. We obtained the timing of past methane release events at the northeastern slope of the South China Sea based on U/Th dating of seep carbonates and seep bivalve fragments from three sites located at 22°02′–22°09′N, 118°43′–118°52′E (water depths from 473 to 785 m). Also, we were able to reconstruct the paleo-bottom water temperatures by calculating the equilibrium temperature using the ages, the corresponding past δ18O of seawater (δ18Osw) and the δ18O of the selected samples formed in contact with bottom seawater with negligible deep fluid influence. A criterion consists of mineralogy, redox-sensitive trace elements and U/Th-isotope systematics is proposed to identify whether the samples were formed from pore water or have been influenced by deep fluid. Our results show that all methane release events occurred between 11.5 ± 0.2 and 144.5 ± 12.7 ka, when sea level was about 62–104 m lower than today. Enhanced methane release during low sea-level stands seems to be modulated by reduced hydrostatic pressure, increased incision of canyons and increased sediment loads. The calculated past bottom water temperature at one site (Site 3; water depth: 767–771 m) during low sea-level stands 11.5 and 65 ka ago ranges from 3.3 to 4.0 °C, i.e., 1.3 to 2.2 °C colder than at present. The reliability of δ18O of seep carbonates and bivalve shells as a proxy for bottom water temperatures is critically assessed in light of 18O-enriched fluids that might be emitted from gas hydrate and/or clay dehydration. Our approach provides for the first time an independent estimate of past bottom water temperatures of the upper continental slope of the South China Sea. ©2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 1437-3254
    Electronic ISSN: 1437-3262
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1999-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0260-3055
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5644
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 9
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Teichert, Barbara M A; Gussone, Nikolaus; Eisenhauer, Anton; Bohrmann, Gerhard (2005): Clathrites - Archives of near-seafloor pore fluid evolution (d44/40Ca, d13C, d18O) in gas hydrate environments. Geology, 33(3), 213-216, https://doi.org/10.1130/G21317.1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Description: Aragonitic clathrites are methane-derived precipitates that are found at sites of massive near-seafloor gas hydrate (clathrate) accumulations at the summit of southern Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia margin. These platy carbonate precipitates form inside or in proximity to gas hydrate, which in our study site currently coexists with a fluid that is highly enriched in dissolved ions as salts are excluded during gas hydrate formation. The clathrites record the preferential incorporation of 18O into the hydrate structure and hence the enrichment of 16O in the surrounding brine. We measured d18O values as high as 2.27 per mil relative to Peedee belemnite that correspond to a fluid composition of -1.18 per mil relative to standard mean ocean water. The same trend can be observed in Ca isotopes. Ongoing clathrite precipitation causes enrichment of the 44Ca in the fluid and hence in the carbonates. Carbon isotopes confirm a methane source for the carbonates. Our triple stable isotope approach that uses the three main components of carbonates (Ca, C, O) provides insight into multiple parameters influencing the isotopic composition of the pore water and hence the isotopic composition of the clathrites. This approach provides a tool to monitor the geochemical processes during clathrate and clathrite formation, thus recording the evolution of the geochemical environment of gas hydrate systems.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 144 data points
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-01-26
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 6 data points
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