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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-09
    Description: Highlights • Continental margin-scale spatial variability in C values among grain size fractions is presented. • Two different hydrodynamic modes influencing in 14C heterogeneity are identified. • A new index (H14 index) is defined to describe overall 14C heterogeneity within marine surface sedimentary OC. Abstract The deposition and long-term burial of sedimentary organic matter (OM) on continental margins comprises a fundamental component of the global carbon cycle. A key unknown in interpretation of carbon isotope records of sedimentary OM is the extent to which OM accumulating in continental shelf and slope sediments is influenced by dispersal and redistribution processes. Here, we present results from an extensive survey of organic carbon (OC) characteristics of grain size fractions (ranging from 〈20 to 250 μm) retrieved from Chinese marginal sea surface sediments in order to assess the extent to which the abundance and isotope composition of OM in shallow shelf seas is influenced by hydrodynamic processes. Our findings show that contrasting relationships exist between 14C contents of OC and grain size in surface sediments associated with two different hydrodynamic modes, suggesting that transport pathways and mechanisms imparted by the different hydrodynamic conditions exert a strong influence on 14C contents of OM in continental shelf sediments. In deeper regions and erosional areas, we infer that bedload transport exerts the strongest influence on (decreases) OC 14C contents of the coarser fraction, while resuspension processes induce OC 14C depletion of intermediate grain size fractions in shallow inner-shelf settings. We use the inter-fraction spread in 14C values, defined here as 14H , to argue that the hydrodynamic processes amplify overall 14C heterogeneity within corresponding bulk sediment samples. The magnitude and footprint of this heterogeneity carries implications for our understanding of carbon cycling in shallow marginal seas.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-10-14
    Description: Anthropogenically driven climate change will rapidly become Earth's dominant transformative influence in the coming decades. The oceanic biological pump—the complex suite of processes that results in the transfer of particulate and dissolved organic carbon from the surface to the deep ocean—constitutes the main mechanism for removing CO2 from the atmosphere and sequestering carbon at depth on submillennium time scales. Variations in the efficacy of the biological pump and the strength of the deep ocean carbon sink, which is larger than all other bioactive carbon reservoirs, regulate Earth's climate and have been implicated in past glacial-​interglacial cycles. The numerous biological, chemical, and physical processes involved in the biological pump are inextricably linked and heterogeneous over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and they influence virtually the entire ocean ecosystem. Thus, the functioning of the oceanic biological pump is not only relevant to the modulation of Earth's climate but also constitutes the basis for marine biodiversity and key food resources that support the human population. Our understanding of the biological pump is far from complete. Moreover, how the biological pump and the deep ocean carbon sink will respond to the rapid and ongoing anthropogenic changes to our planet—including warming, acidification, and deoxygenation of ocean waters—remains highly uncertain. To understand and quantify present-day and future changes in biological pump processes requires sustained global observations coupled with extensive modeling studies supported by international scientific coordination and funding
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-10
    Description: Long-chain diols (LCDs) occur widespread in marine environments and also in lakes and rivers. Transport of LCDs from rivers may impact the distribution of LCDs in coastal environments, however relatively little is known about the distribution and biological sources of LCDs in river systems. In this study, we investigated the distribution of LCDs in suspended particulate matter (SPM) of three river systems (Godavari, Danube, and Rhine) in relation with precipitation, temperature, and source catchments. The dominant long-chain diol is the C32 1,15-diol followed by the C30 1,15-diol in all studied river systems. In regions influenced by marine waters, such as delta systems, the fractional abundance of the C30 1,15-diol is substantially higher than in the river itself, suggesting different LCD producers in marine and freshwater environments. A change in the LCD distribution along the downstream transects of the rivers studied was not observed. However, an effect of river flow is observed; i.e., the concentration of the C32 1,15-diol is higher in stagnant waters such as reservoirs and during seasons with river low stands. A seasonal change in the LCD distribution was observed in the Rhine, likely due to a change in the producers. Eukaryotic diversity analysis by 18S rRNA gene sequencing of SPM from the Rhine showed extremely low abundances of sequences (i.e., 〈0.32% of total reads) related to known algal LCD producers. Furthermore, incubation of the river water with 13C-labeled bicarbonate did not result in 13C incorporation into LCDs. This indicates that the LCDs present are mainly of fossil origin in the fast-flowing part of the Rhine. Overall, our results suggest that the LCD producers in rivers predominantly reside in lakes or side ponds that are part of the river system.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The sources and burial processes of organic matter in marine sediments are not well understood, yet they are important if we are to have a better understanding of the global carbon cycle. In particular, the nature and fraction of the terrestrial organic carbon preserved in marine sediments is ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Nature 443, 846–849 (2006) In Figure 1 of this Letter, the units of organic carbon burial flux on the left y axis should be g m-2 yr-1 and not ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Surface ocean conditions in the equatorial Pacific Ocean could hold the clue to whether millennial-scale global climate change during glacial times was initiated through tropical ocean–atmosphere feedbacks or by changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. North Atlantic cold ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Isotope ratio monitoring-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (irm-GC-MS) ; Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) ; Pyrolysis ; Stable carbon isotopes ; Kerogen ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This study describes the application of isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (irm-GC-MS) for compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of aliphatic hydrocarbon and phenolic products from flash pyrolysis (800 °C, 20s) of natural biopolymers and sedimentary kerogens. As part of this work, we provide a detailed description of the analysis of complex samples, including approaches for peak integration, data handling and correction for derivative carbons. Several aliphatic and aromatic biopolymers are analyzed by irm-GC-MS in order to establish relationships between the isotopic signatures of pyrolysis products and those of their parent macromolecules. We also analyze a select group of kerogens and kerogen precursors of different ages and biopolymer compositions to evaluate the applicability of combined pyrolysis/irm-GC-MS to complex geochemical mixtures. Our findings suggest that, in spite of the wide degree of heterogeneity, the isotopic values of individual aliphatic and phenolic pyrolysis products determined by irm-GC-MS can be related to the isotopic composition of the total organic carbon in kerogens and used to trace its biological sources. This study also highlights the need for optimum chromatographic separation in order to fully realize the potential of compound specific isotope analyses.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 8
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 5 (2004): Q10004, doi:10.1029/2004GC000772.
    Description: Long-chain, odd-carbon-numbered C25 to C35 n-alkanes are characteristic components of epicuticular waxes produced by terrestrial higher plants. They are delivered to aquatic systems via eolian and fluvial transport and are preserved in underlying sediments. The isotopic compositions of these products can serve as records of past vegetation. We have developed a rapid method for stable carbon isotopic analyses of total plant-wax n-alkanes using a novel, moving-wire system coupled to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (MW-irMS). The n-alkane fractions are prepared from sediment samples by (1) saponification and extraction with organic solvents, (2) chromatographic separation using silica gel, (3) isolation of straight-chain carbon skeletons using a zeolite molecular sieve, and (4) oxidation and removal of unsaturated hydrocarbons with RuO4. Short-chain n-alkanes of nonvascular plant origin (〈C25) are removed by evaporation on the moving wire. Test samples processed using this procedure yielded n-alkane fractions essentially free of interfering components. The δ13C values obtained by MW-irMS did not differ significantly from weighted averages of individual n-alkane δ13C values obtained by irmGC-MS. Isotopic variations in compound-class n-alkane fractions from a latitudinal transect of core-top sediments from the Southwest African margin (3°N–28°S) were congruent with those measured by compound-specific isotopic analyses of plant-wax n-alkanes. The amplitude of the variations was smaller, indicating contributions from non-plant-wax hydrocarbons, but the measurements revealed variations in carbon isotopic composition that are consistent with vegetation zones on the adjacent continent.
    Description: We thank the WHOI Summer Student Fellow program and NSF (BCS-0218511) for funding.
    Keywords: Moving wire ; Plant-wax n-alkanes ; Stable carbon isotopes
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: 722636 bytes
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V. , 2008. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Organic Geochemistry 39 (2008): 1039-1045, doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2008.02.006.
    Description: Crenarchaeotal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids and alkenones are two types of biomarkers derived from planktonic marine micro-organisms which are used for reconstruction of sea-surface temperatures. We determined the radiocarbon contents of the archaeal GDGT crenarchaeol and of alkenones isolated from continental margin sediments. Systematic differences were found between the two biomarkers, with higher radiocarbon contents in crenarchaeol than in the phytoplankton-derived alkenones. These differences can be explained by variable contributions of pre-aged, laterally advected material to the core sites. Crenarchaeol appears to be more efficiently degraded during transport in oxygen-replete environments than alkenones. Whether this reflects the influence of chemical structure or mode of protection (e.g., particle association) is not yet known.
    Description: This work was funded by a Spinoza grant of NWO to J.S.S.D. and by NSF-grant OCE-0327405 to T.I.E..
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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