PtK1 keratin filaments
Life and Medical Sciences
Cell & Developmental Biology
Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Treatment of PtK1 cells with 5 mM acrylamide for 4 hr induces reversible de-phosphorylation of keratin in concert with reversible aggregation of intermediate filaments (Eckert and Yeagle, Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 11:24-30, 1988). We have examined this phenomenon by 1) in vitro phosphorylation of isolated PtK1 keratin filaments and 2) combined treatments of PtK1 cells with both acrylamide and agents which elevate intracellular cAMP levels. PtK1 keratins were incubated in gamma-32P-ATP in the presence or absence of cAMP-dependent kinase (A-kinase) and cAMP. Levels of phosphorylation were analyzed by electrophoresis and autoradiography. Phosphorylation of keratin polypeptides (56 kD, 53 kD, 45 kD, 40 kD) occurred without added kinase, suggesting the presence of an endogenous kinase which remains with intermediate filaments in residues of Triton X-100 extracted cells. Phosphorylation levels were increased by A-kinase but not by cAMP alone, indicating the presence of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation sites in addition to sites phosphorylated by the endogenous kinase. To study the possible role of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in acrylamide-induced aggregation of keratin filaments, we treated cells with acrylamide in the presence of 8-bromo-cAMP (brcAMP), pertussis toxin (PT), isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), or forskolin, which increase intracellular cAMP levels. The distribution and phosphorylation levels of keratin filaments, as well as intracellular cAMP levels, were determined for each of these treatments. In addition to aggregation and dephosphorylation of keratin filaments reported previously, treatment of cells with acrylamide alone also results in reduced levels of intracellular cAMP. 8-bromo-cAMP, IBMX, and forskolin prevent acrylamide-induced aggregation of keratin filaments and result in both normal levels of keratin phosphorylation and normal intracellular cAMP levels. PT was apparently ineffective. These observations suggest that 1) PtK1 keratins are phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent kinase and an endogenous, cAMP-independent kinase and 2) alteration of levels of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation may be involved in aggregation of keratin filaments in response to acrylamide.
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