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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-02-03
    Description: The Indonesian fire and smoke event of 2015 was an extreme episode that affected public health and caused severe economic and environmental damage. The MODIS Dark Target (DT) aerosol algorithm, developed for global applications, significantly underestimated regional aerosol optical depth (AOD) during this episode. The larger-than-global-averaged uncertainties in the DT product over this event were due to both an overly zealous set of masks that mistook heavy smoke plumes for clouds and/or inland water, and also an aerosol model developed for generic global aerosol conditions. Using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Version 3 sky inversions of local AERONET stations, we created a specific aerosol model for the extreme event. Thus, using this new less-absorbing aerosol model, cloud masking based on results of the MODIS cloud optical properties algorithm, and relaxed thresholds on both inland water tests and upper limits of the AOD retrieval, we created a research algorithm and applied it to 80 appropriate MODIS granules during the event. Collocating and comparing with AERONET AOD shows that the research algorithm doubles the number of MODIS retrievals greater than 1.0, while also significantly improving agreement with AERONET. The final results show that the operational DT algorithm had missed approximately 0.22 of the regional mean AOD, but as much as AOD = 3.0 for individual 0.5 grid boxes. This amount of missing AOD can skew the perception of the severity of the event, affect estimates of regional aerosol forcing, and alter aerosol modeling and forecasting that assimilate MODIS aerosol data products. These results will influence the future development of the global DT aerosol algorithm.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN63794 , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ISSN 1680-7316) (e-ISSN 1680-7324); 19; 1; 259-274
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A new satellite remote sensing method for estimating the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) incident at the earth's surface is described and tested. Potential incident PAR for clear sky conditions is computed from an existing spectral model. A major advantage of the UV approach over existing visible band approaches to estimating insolation is the improved ability to discriminate clouds from high-albedo background surfaces. UV spectral reflectance data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) were used to test the approach for three climatically distinct, midlatitude locations. Estimates of monthly total incident PAR from the satellite technique differed from values computed from ground-based pyranometer measurements by less than 6 percent. This UV remote sensing method can be applied to estimate PAR insolation over ocean and land surfaces which are free of ice and snow.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Remote Sensing of Environment (ISSN 0034-4257); 38; 135-146
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The effects of varying atmospheric aerosol optical depth on the bidirectional reflectance distribution of vegetation canopies is investigated. The reflectance distributions of two pasture grass canopies and one soya bean canopy under different sky irradiance distributions were measured, and the data were analyzed in the visible and IR spectral bands. It is observed that, for the pasture grass canopies, the change in reflectance is due to the percentage of shadowed area viewed by the sensor, and for the soya bean, the specular reflection effect and increased diffuse irradiance penetration into the canopy cause reflectance changes. It is detected that the reflectivity for the soya bean canopy on a hazy day is lower than on a clear day; however, the opposite change is observed for the pasture grass. It is also detected that the normalized difference vegetation index values differ under clear and hazy conditions for the same vegetation canopy conditions.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 8; 893-916
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: To improve the interpretation of surface cryospheric albedo from satellite sensor data, diurnal measurements of the spectral bidirectional reflectance of a commonly found fresh water ice type were made, from which hemispherical reflectance can be derived. The purpose of this study is to document its clear-sky, bidirectional reflectance characteristics in the visible (650-670 nm) and near-infrared (810-840 nm) region, assess the diurnal nature of the reflectance, and quantify the surface anisotropy. Bidirectional reflectances of the refrozen slush ice measured show a spectral dependence and change significantly with solar zenith angle. Considerable variation occurs at each view angle and among view angles throughout the day. Although diurnal reflectance patterns were similar in both bands, magnitudes varied greatly, being highest in the visible and lowest in the near-infrared region. With the exception of peak saturated (specular) values in the forward scatter direction, bidirectional reflectance was generally highest in the morning when the surface and the illumination were most diffuse in character.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Annals of Glaciology (ISSN 0260-3055); 14; 153-157
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results are presented on the analysis of the Nimbus-7 satellite data set obtained on regional and seasonal variations in global cloud cover. Four midseason months (April, July, and October 1979 and January 1980) were analyzed for the total cloud amount, the cloud amounts at high, middle, and low altitudes, the cirrus and deep convective clouds, and the cloud and clear-sky 11.5 micron-derived radiances; in addition, noon versus midnight cloud amounts were examined. The Nimbus-7 data are compared with three previously published cloud climatologies, and the differences among these data sets are discussed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Climate (ISSN 0894-8755); 2; 671-709
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Measurements of plant canopy bidirectional reflectance made by the PARABOLA (portable apparatus for rapid acquisition of bidirectional observations of the land and atmosphere) instrument in three spectral bands are analyzed for steppe grassland sites of differing productivity levels. The variation of spectral reflectance and the normalized difference vegetation index in the solar principal plane is presented. Comparisons are made with PARABOLA measurements from selected first ISLSCP field experiment (FIFE) grassland sites in the Konza prairie, Kansas. The Streletskaya steppe sites showed no strong hot spot reflectance, while this effect was present in some FIFE sites but absent in others. The hot spot effect seems to be dependent on canopy geometry and background reflectance characteristics of these sites. Spectral hemispherical reflectance was computed from the angular integration of the bidirectional measurements for the steppe sites. Total shortwave albedo was estimated from these hemispherical reflectance measurements and compared to albedo measured by pyranometers. The albedo estimates from PARABOLA were found to be approximately 12-17 percent higher than the pyranometer measurements.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: In: IGARSS '92; Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Houston, TX, May 26-29, 1992. Vol. 2 (A93-47551 20-43); p. 1053-1055.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Biomass burning, urban pollution and dust aerosols have significant impacts on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere over Asia. In order to better quanti@ these aerosol characteristics, the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) has established over 200 sites worldwide with an emphasis in recent years on the Asian continent - specifically Southeast Asia. A total of approximately 15 AERONET sun photometer instruments have been deployed to China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Sun photometer spectral aerosol optical depth measurements as well as microphysical and optical aerosol retrievals over Southeast Asia will be analyzed and discussed with supporting ground-based instrument, satellite, and model data sets, which are freely available via the AERONET Data Synergy tool at the AERONET web site (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov). This web-based data tool provides access to groundbased (AERONET and MPLNET), satellite (MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, and OMI) and model (GOCART and back trajectory analyses) databases via one web portal. Future development of the AERONET Data Synergy Tool will include the expansion of current data sets as well as the implementation of other Earth Science data sets pertinent to advancing aerosol research.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: ASIA Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS) 4th Annual Meeting; Jul 30, 2007 - Aug 04, 2007; Bangkok; Thailand
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program studied water vapor abundance measurement at its southern Great Plains site in the fall of 1997. The program used a large number of instruments, including four solar radiometers. By measuring solar transmittance in the 0.94 micrometer water apor absorption band, they were able to measure columnar water vapor (CWV). In the second round of comparison we used the same radiative transfer model, and the same line-by-line code (which includes recently corrected H2O spectroscopy) to retrieve CWV from all four solar radiometers, thus decreasing the mean CWV by 8 - 13 %. The model was not responsible for the 8 % spread in CWV which remained.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Applied Optics; 40; 12
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2009-05-19
    Description: Five Microtops II sun photometers were studied in detail at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to determine their performance in measuring aerosol optical thickness (AOT or Tau(sub alphalambda) and precipitable column water vapor (W). Each derives Tau(sub alphalambda) from measured signals at four wavelengths lambda (340, 440, 675, and 870 nm), and W from the 936 nm signal measurements. Accuracy of Tau(sub alphalambda) and W determination depends on the reliability of the relevant channel calibration coefficient (V(sub 0)). Relative calibration by transfer of parameters from a more accurate sun photometer (such as the Mauna-Loa-calibrated AERONET master sun photometer at GSFC) is more reliable than Langley calibration performed at GSFC. It was found that the factory-determined value of the instrument constant for the 936 nm filter (k= 0.7847) used in the Microtops' internal algorithm is unrealistic, causing large errors in V(sub 0(936)), Tau(sub alpha936), and W. Thus, when applied for transfer calibration at GSFC, whereas the random variation of V(aub 0) at 340 to 870 nm is quite small, with coefficients of variation (CV) in the range of 0 to 2.4%, at 936 nm the CV goes up to 19%. Also, the systematic temporal variation of V(sub 0) at 340 to 870 nm is very slow, while at 936 nm it is large and exhibits a very high dependence on W. The algorithm also computes Tau(sub alpha936) as 0.91Tau(sub alpha870), which is highly simplistic. Therefore, it is recommended to determine Tau(sub alpha936) by logarithmic extrapolation from Tau(sub alpha675) and Tau(sub alpha 870. From the operational standpoint of the Microtops, apart from errors that may result from unperceived cloud contamination, the main sources of error include inaccurate pointing to the Sun, neglecting to clean the front quartz window, and neglecting to calibrate correctly. If these three issues are adequately taken care of, the Microtops can be quite accurate and stable, with root mean square (rms) differences between corresponding retrievals from clean calibrated Microtops and the AERONET sun photometer being about +/-0.02 at 340 nm, decreasing down to about +/-0.01 at 870 nm.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: We present an analysis of the effect of aerosol forward scattering on the accuracy of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by CIMEL Sun photometers. The effect is quantified in terms of AOD and solar zenith angle using radiative transfer modeling. The analysis is based on aerosol size distributions derived from multi-year climatologies of AERONET aerosol retrievals. The study shows that the modeled error is lower than AOD calibration uncertainty (0.01) for the vast majority of AERONET level 2 observations, ~99.53%. Only ~0.47% of the AERONET database corresponding mostly to dust aerosol with high AOD and low solar elevations has larger biases. We also show that observations with extreme reductions in direct solar irradiance do not contribute to level 2 AOD due to low Sun photometer digital counts below a quality control cutoff threshold.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Geosciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN6963
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