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  • 1
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Comparative mapping ; DNA markers ; Solanum tuberosum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The allele specificity of AFLP markers was assessed in five relatively unrelated potato genotypes. To this end, two diploid mapping populations of potato, F1SH × RH and F1AM × RH, were analysed using four and six AFLP primer combinations, respectively, recently applied to the analysis of the genetically well characterized backcross population BC_C × E. The AFLP profiles of the five parents revealed 733 AFLP markers and, when identical primer combinations were used, 131 comigrating AFLP markers were identified. After construction of five parental maps, the genomic positions of these comigrating AFLP markers were compared and 117 markers (89%) which targeted the same genomic region were assumed to be homologous. Of these putative homologues, 20 markers, each cloned from at least two genotypes, were sequenced and 19 sets of amplification products were shown to be nearly identical. The number of AFLP markers previously mapped in population BC_C × E ranged from three to eleven per chromosome, which allowed a reliable assessment of chromosome numbers from individual linkage groups obtained in populations F1SH × RH and F1AM × RH. The high incidence of corresponding AFLP alleles was confirmed by using an additional set of five primer combinations. The 733 AFLP markers localized provide a valuable reference collection for future mapping studies in potato. As a consequence AFLP analysis may replace more laborious locus-specific marker techniques.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words AFLP marker ; Globodera
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A mapping strategy is described for the construction of a linkage map of a non-inbred species in which individual offspring genotypes are not amenable to marker analysis. After one extra generation of random mating, the segregating progeny was propagated, and bulked populations of offspring were analyzed. Although the resulting population structure is different from that of commonly used mapping populations, we show that the maximum likelihood formula for a normal F2 is applicable for the estimation of recombination. This “pseudo-F2” mapping strategy, in combination with the development of an AFLP assay for single cysts, facilitated the construction of a linkage map for the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Using 12 pre-selected AFLP primer combinations, a total of 66 segregating markers were identified, 62 of which were mapped to nine linkage groups. These 62 AFLP markers are randomly distributed and cover about 65% of the genome. An estimate of the physical size of the Globodera genome was obtained from comparisons of the number of AFLP fragments obtained with the values for Caenorhabditis elegans. The methodology presented here resulted in the first genomic map for a cyst nematode. The low value of the kilobase/centimorgan (kb/cM) ratio for the Globodera genome will facilitate map-based cloning of genes that mediate the interaction between the nematode and its host plant.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Morphological markers ; Isozymes ; Non-inbred species ; Combined map ; JoinMap
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A genetic map of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) integrating molecular markers with morphological and isozyme markers was constructed using a backcross population of 67 diploid potato plants. A general method for map construction is described that differs from previous methods employed in potato and other outbreeding plants. First, separate maps for the female and male parents were constructed. The female map contained 132 markers, whereas the male map contained 138 markers. Second, on the basis of the markers in common the two integrated parental maps were combined into one with the computer programme JoinMap. This combined map consisted of 175 molecular markers, 10 morphological markers and 8 isozyme markers. Ninety-two of the molecular markers were derived from DNA sequences flanking either T-DNA inserts in potato or reintegrated maize transposable elements originating from these T-DNA constructs. Clusters of distorted segregation were found on chromosomes 1,2,8 and 11 for the male parent and chromosome 5 for both parents. The total length of the combined map is 1120 cM.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words AFLP genetic marker ; Alstroemeriaceae ; Inca lily ; Multiple cascade PCR ; Preamplification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The recently introduced PCR-based DNA fingerprinting technique AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) allows the selective amplification of subsets of genomic restriction fragments. AFLP has been used for multiple purposes such as the construction of linkage maps, marker saturation at specific genomic regions, analysis of genetic diversity and molecular phylogeny and cultivar identification. AFLP can be tailored by varying the number of selective nucleotides added to core primers and can allow accurate amplification, even in complex template mixtures generated from plant species with very large genomes. In this study Alstroemeria, a plant species with a very large genome, was tested for adapting the AFLP protocol. The results indicated that the estimated number of amplification products was close to the observed number when eight selective nucleotides were used but that seven selective nucleotides did not increase the number of amplification products fourfold. However, we found reproducibility in both +7 and +8 fingerprints. Various distributions of selective nucleotides over the various rounds of preamplifications were tested. Preamplification with four selective nucleotides followed by final amplification with eight selective nucleotides produced clear and reproducible AFLP patterns. The effects of GC content of primers and multiple preamplification steps were also discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Tetrasomic inheritance ; Solanum tuberosum ; AFLP ; Bulked segregant analysis ; R2 resistance gene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Due to the complexity of tetrasomic inheritance, mapping studies in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) are generally conducted at the diploid level. In the present study we tested the feasibility of Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA) using a tetraploid offspring for the identification of AFLP markers linked to the R2 allele, which confers race-specific resistance to Phytophthora infestans. Eleven bulk-specific AFLP markers, detected in fingerprints of 205 AFLP primer combinations, could be mapped in a linkage group encompassing the R2 locus. The efficiency of BSA at the tetraploid level, determined by the frequency of single-dose restriction fragments (SDRF), was much higher than expected on the basis of overall genetic dissimilarity between the parental clones. The fortuitous detection of AFLPs with linkage to the R2 allele is explained on the basis of specific genetic dissimilarity between cultivated potato and the chromosomal segment introgressed from S. demissum carrying the resistant R2 allele. AFLP markers common to those with linkage to R2 were visually recognized by their electrophoretic mobility in the AFLP fingerprint in a parental clone of a reference mapping population. Using these common AFLP markers we anchored the linkage group comprising the R2 allele to potato chromosome 4.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Digicon has been chosen as the detector for the High Resolution Spectrograph and the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Space Telescope. Both tubes are 512 channel, parallel-output devices and feature CsTe photocathodes on MgF2 faceplates. Using a computer-assisted test facility, the tubes have been characterized with respect to diode array performance, photocathode response (1100-9000 A), and imaging capability. Data are presented on diode dark current and capacitance distributions, pulse height resolution, photocathode quantum efficiency, uniformity and blemishes, dark count rate, distortion, resolution, and crosstalk.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: Seminar on Advances in focal plane technology; Feb 04, 1980 - Feb 05, 1980; Los Angeles, CA
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The general design and performance of a digicon sensor system developed for the high-resolution spectrograph (HRS) to be flown on the shuttle-launched space telescope are discussed. The digicon sensor system consists of an encapsulated digicon tube, deflection/tweaking coil, permanent magnet assembly, wiring interface assembly, preamplifiers, and high-voltage power supply. The performance attributes and capabilities of the digicon sensor system exceed those of any existing space qualified system; the HRS digicon lifetime has been demonstrated to be far in excess of space telescope orbital requirements.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Format: text
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