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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 38 (1982), S. 1384-1391 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1617-5786
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Conclusions The centre of interest in the field of synaptic and neuro-muscular transmission has been for some time occupied by the two conflicting hypotheses of chemical and electrical mediation. Moreover this conflict is not restricted to transmission to any one type of effector,for it now appears certain that, with the exception of diffuse chemical mediation from postganglionic endings, the same hypothesis must cover all transmissions. In their discussion on skeletal muscleDale, Feldberg andVogt (1936) have thus stated the problem of the relation between diffuse chemical mediation from postganglionic endings and the more specialized transmissions: “The question which here concerns us is whether in voluntary striated muscle, specialized for the quick contraction of individual fibres in response to nerve impulses, and normally at rest in their absence, this more primitive, chemical method of transmission has been superseded by an entirely different one, in which the chemico-physical disturbance constituting the nerve impulse passes... on to the muscle fibre; or whether, on the other hand, the required specialization has been effected by concentrating the release and the action of the chemical stimulant at the point of immediate contact of the nerve ending with the muscle fibre.” From the developmental aspect there is something to be said for both answers, for on the one hand the chemical localization would involve a less fundamental change, and on the other hand with the development of a specialized intracellular propagation by all-or-nothing impulses an associated development of a specialized intercellular propagation might also be expected. At present the chemical and electrical hypotheses must both be regarded as on probation. This uncertainity must be emphasized, as the apparently convincing evidence which has been adduced in support of either hypothesis has led to premature decisions, just as in the case of the biochemistry of muscular contraction. Approached from the pharmacological aspect, the evidence for chemical mediation seems indisputable, and equally convincing is the electrical hypothesis from the electrical point of view; hence coordination of pharmacological and electrical investigation is desirable. Further investigation should also be attempted in relation to the detailed study of the changes which nerve impulses set up in the various effectors, and functional regeneration after cross-union experiments also requires re-investigation from the histological, physiological and pharmacological aspects. An eventual solution may not be easily and quickly attained, for the minute and rapid changes responsible for the transmission can only be indirectly investigated, and theoretical arguments from experimental evidence are hampered by our inadequate knowledge of cell physiology and pharmacology, especially in relation to the behaviour of specialized regions of cells.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 178 (1956), S. 1049-1050 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Further, it may be postulated that the subsynaptic currents (cf. inset, Fig. B) generating these potential changes have the same time courses as the synaptic transmitter substances that are responsible for them. Hitherto the time courses of action of the respective transmitters have been derived ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 171 (1953), S. 1061-1062 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] THERE have been many investigations on the convulsive action of strychnine1-7; but it has hitherto not been possible to determine the essential nature of the action. For example, it would still be possible to hold that strychnine transforms inhibitory synaptic action into excitatory action, or ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 167 (1951), S. 466-468 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] PLASTICITY in the central nervous system, that is, the ability of individual synaptic junctions to respond to use and disuse by appropriate changes in transmissive efficacy, is frequently postulated or implied in discussions on the mechanisms underlying the phenomena of learning and memory1'2. ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 166 (1950), S. 465-466 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] RECENTLY, Lloyd1 has shown convincingly that after repetitive stimulation of afferent fibres from muscle there is a large potentiation of all reflex effects (excitatory or inhibitory) directly produced by impulses in those fibres. Since this post-tetanic potentiation is not associated with an ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 175 (1955), S. 120-121 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The tetanus toxin was administered by injection within the sheath of the sciatic nerve in order that its effect on the spinal cord would initially be localized, and hence control responses would be provided by the other side. The procedure for investigating direct inhibition resembled that already ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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