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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-10
    Description: Our knowledge on distribution, habitats and behavior of Southern Ocean fishes living at water depths beyond scuba-diving limits is still sparse, as it is difficult to obtain quantitative data on these aspects of their biology. Here, we report the results of an analysis of seabed images to investigate species composition, behavior, spatial distribution and preferred habitats of demersal fish assemblages in the southern Weddell Sea. Our study was based on a total of 2736 high-resolution images, covering a total seabed area of 11,317 m2, which were taken at 13 stations at water depths between 200 and 750 m. Fish were found in 380 images. A total of 379 notothenioid specimens were recorded, representing four families (Nototheniidae, Artedidraconidae, Bathydraconidae, Channichthyidae), 17 genera and 25 species. Nototheniidae was the most speciose fam- ily, including benthic species (Trematomus spp.) and the pelagic species Pleuragramma antarctica, which was occasionally recorded in dense shoals. Bathydraconids ranked second with six species, followed by artedidraconids and channichthyids, both with five species. Most abundant species were Trematomus scotti and T. lepidorhinus among nototheniids, and Dol- loidraco longedorsalis and Pagetopsis maculatus among artedidraconids and channichthyids, respectively. Both T. lepi- dorhinus and P. maculatus preferred seabed habitats characterized by biogenous debris and rich epibenthic fauna, whereas T. scotti and D. longedorsalis were frequently seen resting on fine sediments and scattered gravel. Several fish species were recorded to make use of the three-dimensional structure formed by epibenthic foundation species, like sponges, for perching or hiding inside. Nesting behavior was observed, frequently in association with dropstones, in species from various families, including Channichthyidae (Chaenodraco wilsoni and Pagetopsis macropterus) and Bathydraconidae (Cygnodraco mawsoni).
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Rhigophila were collected in baited traps lowered to a depth of 475-550 m through the ice at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica (77 54' S, 166 40' E). The traps were retrieved 4 d later with an ocanographie winch. Fish were maintained in aquaria supplied with running water from McMurdo Sound. Although ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 271 (1978), S. 352-353 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Pleuragramma were collected by lowering a 2-m2 net to a depth of 475 m through a 3-m2 hole in the ice at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica (7754/S, 16640'E). The net was retrieved at the rate of 60 m min^1. When freshly caught specimens of Pleuragramma were trans-illuminated, translucent sacs (0.5-3.0 mm ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2056
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-eight specimens of the large notothenioid Dissostichus mawsoni were dissected after capture on a set line near the southern limit of its range in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Total length (L T) averaged 127.3 cm (range 90–162 cm) and weight (W ) was 26.7 kg (range 10.4–60.3 kg). The length-weight relationship was W=3.44×10−5 L T 2.85 (n=28, r 2=0.96). Subcutaneous lipid thickness averaged 2.6 mm and showed no difference due to sex, but a significant weak relationship to W and L T. Hepatosomatic index (I H) was 1.6% for females and 1.7% for males; gonadosomatic index (I G) was 0.9% for females and 0.2% for males. Although specimens were large and sexually mature, the histology indicated that the gonads of this November sample were in a resting stage. Testes lacked spermatids and spermatozoa. Oocytes were in the previtellogenic stage (91.2%) or in the first stage of vitellogenesis (8.8%). A few atretic oocytes and empty follicles indicated that some females in this sample had spawned previously. A summary of the life-cycle is also presented.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 219 (1981), S. 489-496 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Liver ; Perisinusoidal cell ; Protein ; Antarctic fishes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Compared with those of other vertebrate animals, the livers of Antarctic fishes have a unique type of perisinusoidal (Ito) cell. These cells were studied in 9 species with emphasis on Dissostichus mawsoni. Perisinusoidal cells are found in large numbers throughout the liver, have long cytoplasmic arms and, in Dissostichus, contain numerous lipid droplets. The extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum and prominent nucleolus are ultrastructural characteristics indicating that these cells are engaged in protein synthesis. An evolutionary specialization, perisinusoidal cells may be partially responsible for the elevated levels of protein synthesis characteristic of fishes in the Antarctic marine environment.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 196 (1988), S. 283-306 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Beneath the sea ice at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, notothenioid fishes are subject to extreme seasonal variation in the annual light cycle including 4 months of continual darkness. Gross and microscopic anatomy of the eyes of 18 species revealed ocular morphology that was generally similar to that of coastal fishes elsewhere in the world, and unlike that of deep sea fishes living in perpetual darkness. The spectacle was well developed as were hyaloid arteries at the vitreoretinal interface. Fourteen species had a choroid body, and its presence was considered a primitive character state for notothenioids. The choroid body was absent in phyletically derived groups. The choroid body was especially large in Dissostichus mawsoni, the only species with a rod dominated retina. Retinae were 154-279 μm thick with layering and sublayering typical for teleosts. Although all species had both rods and cones, there was marked interspecific variation in the ratio of cones:rods and in the total number of visual cells. Non-Antarctic notothenioids from New Zealand had more visual cells than most species from McMurdo Sound. Retinae appeared balanced for vision under dim but seasonally variable light conditions and not specially adapted to the 4-month period of winter darkness. Retinal histology reflected the ecology and depth range of most species. Based on ecology and retinal histology, four groups of species were recognized: (1) Non-Antarctic, (2) cryopelagic (including two visually oriented benthic species), (3) pelagic and benthopelagic, and (4) benthic.
    Additional Material: 17 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 208 (1991), S. 347-365 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The scaleless notothenioid Gymnodraco acuticeps is a bottom dweller beneath the sea ice of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Gymnodraco experience unusual environmental conditions, including highly oxygenated subzero water. Skin morphology is evaluated with reference to its potential as a barrier to ice propagation and as a surface for cutaneous respiration. Light and electron microscopy and histochemistry reveal skin structure that is generally similar to that of other teleosts. In the epidermis, epithelial cells are arranged in nine to fifteen layers, and two types of mucous cells are also present. Large mucous cells are most common on external epidermal surfaces, whereas small cells are more frequent on internal epithelial surfaces. Epithelial cell junctions have extensive areas of desmosomes as well as interdigitations of the cell membranes, especially in the basal and midepidermis. The dermis consists of an exceptionally dense stratum compactum. The skin is thicker than that of Bovichtus, a scaleless temperate notothenioid from New Zealand. Mean skin thicknesses at sites on the trunk are 371-711 μm. With the exception of fins that contact the substrate, epidermal thickness between rays of most fins is 70-118 μm. The epithelial surfaces of the oral and branchial cavities are 27-50 μm thick. An unusual type of connective tissue is present beneath the epidermis of the pelvic fin. It contains abundant ground substance and is similar to mucous connective tissue of the mammalian umbilical cord. Perfusions of a microvascular filling agent reveal a moderately developed cutaneous vasculature. These vessels have the dimensions of capillaries (mean external diameter 11 μm). They are confined to the dermis and are more prominent on the head than on the trunk. The skin is secondary to the gills as a respiratory surface in Gymnodraco.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Notothenioidei, a perciform suborder of 120 species, dominates the ichthyofauna of the Southern Ocean around Antarctica. Unlike most teleost groups, notothenioids have undergone a corresponding ecological and phyletic diversification and therefore provide an excellent opportunity to study the divergence of the nervous system in an unusual environment. Our goal is to evaluate notothenioid brain variation in light of this diversification. To provide a baseline morphology, we examine the gross morphology and histology of the brain of Trematomus bernacchii, a generalized member of the family Nototheniidae. We then examine the variation in brain gross anatomy (32 species) and histology (10 species) of other notothenioids. Our sample represents about 27% of the species in this group and includes species from each of the six families, as well as species representing diverse ecologies. For comparison we reference the well-studied brains of two species of temperate perciformes (Perca flavescens and Lepomis humilis). Our results show that, in general, notothenioid brains are more similar to the brains of temperate perciforms than to the unusual brains of cave-dwelling and deep-sea fishes. Interspecific variation in gross brain morphology is comparable to that in Old World cyprinids and is illustrated for 17 species. Variation is especially noteworthy in the ecologically and geographically diverse family Nototheniidae. Measurements indicate that sensory regions (olfactory bulbs, eminentia granularis, and crista cerebellaris) exhibit the most pronounced variation in relative surface area. Association areas, including the corpus cerebelli and the telencephalon, exhibit moderate variation in size, shape, and lobation patterns. Regulatory areas of the brain, including the saccus vasculosus and the subependyma of the third ventricle, are also variable. These regions are best developed in species living in the subfreezing water close to the continent. In some species the expanded ependymal lining forms ventricular sacs, not previously described in any other vertebrate. Three species, including two nototheniids (Eleginops maclovinus and Pleuragramma antarcticum) and the only artedidraconid in our sample, have distinctive brains. The unique brain morphology of Pleuragramma is probably related to a sensory (lateral line) specialization for feeding. Within the Nototheniidae, a phyletic effect on cerebellar morphology is evident in the Coriiceps group and in the Pleuragramminae. Neither phyletic position nor ecological factors (water temperature, position in the water column, dietary habits) alone fully expalin the pattern of notothenioid brain diversification. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 134 (1971), S. 131-140 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The carp, Cyprinus carpio, was found to have eight pairs of muscles inserting on the pharyngeal bones. These were the levator arcus branchialis V, retractor os pharyngeus superioris, retractor os pharyngeus inferioris, cleithropharyngeus superficialis, cleithropharyngeus profundus, coracobranchialis posterior, transversus ventralis V and subarcualis rectus communis. Complete morphological descriptions of the muscles are given along with relevant osteological information. The pharyngeal muscles function in mastication by moving the bones and their attached teeth against the chewing pad so that crushing and grinding of food occurs during occlusion. In addition, certain pharyngeal bone muscles enlarge the lumen of the posterior pharynx thereby admitting food to the region of the teeth and chewing pad. The homologies of some of these muscles are considered along with the historical details pertinent to the establishment of a suitable nomenclature for the pharyngeal bone muscles.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 167 (1981), S. 91-102 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The endemic Antarctic teleosts of the suborder Notothenioidei are bottom dwellers. They lack swim bladders, are heavier than seawater, and feed on or near the bottom. The midwaters surrounding the Antarctic continent are productive and underutilized by fishes. There is an evolutionary trend toward pelagism in some notothenioids. We discovered that the largest Antarctic fish, Dissostichus mawsoni, was neutrally buoyant. Attainment of neutral buoyancy was associated with specializations of the skeletal, integumentary, muscular, and digestive systems. The skeleton had a low mineral content and contained considerable cartilage. Scales were also incompletely mineralized. Static lift was obtained from extensive lipid (mostly triglyceride) deposits. A 2-8 mm subcutaneous lipid layer accounted for 4.7% of the body weight. White muscle also contained much lipid-23% on a dry weight basis, or 4.8% of the body weight. Microscopic examination suggested that the liver was active in lipid metabolism, although it was not an organ of buoyancy. Stellate (perisinusoidal) cells with many lipid droplets were a very prominent cytological component of the liver. These specializations made Dissostichus neutrally buoyant and capable of inhabiting the food-rich Antarctic midwaters.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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