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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-07-22
    Description: The impressive capabilities of the mammalian brain--ranging from perception, pattern recognition and memory formation to decision making and motor activity control--have inspired their re-creation in a wide range of artificial intelligence systems for applications such as face recognition, anomaly detection, medical diagnosis and robotic vehicle control. Yet before neuron-based brains evolved, complex biomolecular circuits provided individual cells with the 'intelligent' behaviour required for survival. However, the study of how molecules can 'think' has not produced an equal variety of computational models and applications of artificial chemical systems. Although biomolecular systems have been hypothesized to carry out neural-network-like computations in vivo and the synthesis of artificial chemical analogues has been proposed theoretically, experimental work has so far fallen short of fully implementing even a single neuron. Here, building on the richness of DNA computing and strand displacement circuitry, we show how molecular systems can exhibit autonomous brain-like behaviours. Using a simple DNA gate architecture that allows experimental scale-up of multilayer digital circuits, we systematically transform arbitrary linear threshold circuits (an artificial neural network model) into DNA strand displacement cascades that function as small neural networks. Our approach even allows us to implement a Hopfield associative memory with four fully connected artificial neurons that, after training in silico, remembers four single-stranded DNA patterns and recalls the most similar one when presented with an incomplete pattern. Our results suggest that DNA strand displacement cascades could be used to endow autonomous chemical systems with the capability of recognizing patterns of molecular events, making decisions and responding to the environment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Qian, Lulu -- Winfree, Erik -- Bruck, Jehoshua -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jul 20;475(7356):368-72. doi: 10.1038/nature10262.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21776082" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biomimetics ; *Computers, Molecular ; DNA/analysis/*chemistry ; Decision Making ; Memory ; Models, Biological ; Nanotechnology ; *Neural Networks (Computer) ; Neurons ; Synthetic Biology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2007-11-17
    Description: Artificial biochemical circuits are likely to play as large a role in biological engineering as electrical circuits have played in the engineering of electromechanical devices. Toward that end, nucleic acids provide a designable substrate for the regulation of biochemical reactions. However, it has been difficult to incorporate signal amplification components. We introduce a design strategy that allows a specified input oligonucleotide to catalyze the release of a specified output oligonucleotide, which in turn can serve as a catalyst for other reactions. This reaction, which is driven forward by the configurational entropy of the released molecule, provides an amplifying circuit element that is simple, fast, modular, composable, and robust. We have constructed and characterized several circuits that amplify nucleic acid signals, including a feedforward cascade with quadratic kinetics and a positive feedback circuit with exponential growth kinetics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, David Yu -- Turberfield, Andrew J -- Yurke, Bernard -- Winfree, Erik -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Nov 16;318(5853):1121-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, MC 136-93, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA91125, USA. dzhang@dna.caltech.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18006742" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Catalysis ; Chemical Engineering ; *Computers, Molecular ; DNA/*chemistry ; Entropy ; Equipment Design ; Feedback, Physiological ; Mice ; Nanotechnology ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; Rabbits
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2006-12-13
    Description: Biological organisms perform complex information processing and control tasks using sophisticated biochemical circuits, yet the engineering of such circuits remains ineffective compared with that of electronic circuits. To systematically create complex yet reliable circuits, electrical engineers use digital logic, wherein gates and subcircuits are composed modularly and signal restoration prevents signal degradation. We report the design and experimental implementation of DNA-based digital logic circuits. We demonstrate AND, OR, and NOT gates, signal restoration, amplification, feedback, and cascading. Gate design and circuit construction is modular. The gates use single-stranded nucleic acids as inputs and outputs, and the mechanism relies exclusively on sequence recognition and strand displacement. Biological nucleic acids such as microRNAs can serve as inputs, suggesting applications in biotechnology and bioengineering.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Seelig, Georg -- Soloveichik, David -- Zhang, David Yu -- Winfree, Erik -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 Dec 8;314(5805):1585-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17158324" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Pairing ; Base Sequence ; *Biotechnology ; *Computers, Molecular ; *Dna ; *DNA, Single-Stranded ; Logic ; Mice ; MicroRNAs ; Nanostructures ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Oligodeoxyribonucleotides
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-06-04
    Description: To construct sophisticated biochemical circuits from scratch, one needs to understand how simple the building blocks can be and how robustly such circuits can scale up. Using a simple DNA reaction mechanism based on a reversible strand displacement process, we experimentally demonstrated several digital logic circuits, culminating in a four-bit square-root circuit that comprises 130 DNA strands. These multilayer circuits include thresholding and catalysis within every logical operation to perform digital signal restoration, which enables fast and reliable function in large circuits with roughly constant switching time and linear signal propagation delays. The design naturally incorporates other crucial elements for large-scale circuitry, such as general debugging tools, parallel circuit preparation, and an abstraction hierarchy supported by an automated circuit compiler.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Qian, Lulu -- Winfree, Erik -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jun 3;332(6034):1196-201. doi: 10.1126/science.1200520.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21636773" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Computer Simulation ; *Computers, Molecular ; DNA/*chemistry/*metabolism ; DNA, Single-Stranded/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Logic ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; *Nucleic Acid Hybridization
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2010-05-14
    Description: Traditional robots rely for their function on computing, to store internal representations of their goals and environment and to coordinate sensing and any actuation of components required in response. Moving robotics to the single-molecule level is possible in principle, but requires facing the limited ability of individual molecules to store complex information and programs. One strategy to overcome this problem is to use systems that can obtain complex behaviour from the interaction of simple robots with their environment. A first step in this direction was the development of DNA walkers, which have developed from being non-autonomous to being capable of directed but brief motion on one-dimensional tracks. Here we demonstrate that previously developed random walkers-so-called molecular spiders that comprise a streptavidin molecule as an inert 'body' and three deoxyribozymes as catalytic 'legs'-show elementary robotic behaviour when interacting with a precisely defined environment. Single-molecule microscopy observations confirm that such walkers achieve directional movement by sensing and modifying tracks of substrate molecules laid out on a two-dimensional DNA origami landscape. When using appropriately designed DNA origami, the molecular spiders autonomously carry out sequences of actions such as 'start', 'follow', 'turn' and 'stop'. We anticipate that this strategy will result in more complex robotic behaviour at the molecular level if additional control mechanisms are incorporated. One example might be interactions between multiple molecular robots leading to collective behaviour; another might be the ability to read and transform secondary cues on the DNA origami landscape as a means of implementing Turing-universal algorithmic behaviour.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2907518/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2907518/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lund, Kyle -- Manzo, Anthony J -- Dabby, Nadine -- Michelotti, Nicole -- Johnson-Buck, Alexander -- Nangreave, Jeanette -- Taylor, Steven -- Pei, Renjun -- Stojanovic, Milan N -- Walter, Nils G -- Winfree, Erik -- Yan, Hao -- P41 RR017573/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P41 RR017573-086704/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM062357/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM062357-09/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 EB005582/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- T32 EB005582-05/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008270/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008270-24/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 May 13;465(7295):206-10. doi: 10.1038/nature09012.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20463735" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Computers, Molecular ; DNA, Catalytic/*metabolism ; DNA, Single-Stranded/chemistry/*metabolism ; Microscopy, Atomic Force ; Microscopy, Fluorescence ; *Movement/drug effects ; Nanotechnology/*methods ; Robotics ; Streptavidin/*chemistry ; Surface Plasmon Resonance ; Time Factors ; Zinc/metabolism/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1995-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0149-1423
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1995-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0149-1423
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-12-15
    Description: Chemistries exhibiting complex dynamics—from inorganic oscillators to gene regulatory networks—have been long known but either cannot be reprogrammed at will or rely on the sophisticated enzyme chemistry underlying the central dogma. Can simpler molecular mechanisms, designed from scratch, exhibit the same range of behaviors? Abstract chemical reaction networks have been proposed as a programming language for complex dynamics, along with their systematic implementation using short synthetic DNA molecules. We developed this technology for dynamical systems by identifying critical design principles and codifying them into a compiler automating the design process. Using this approach, we built an oscillator containing only DNA components, establishing that Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions alone suffice for complex chemical dynamics and that autonomous molecular systems can be designed via molecular programming languages.
    Keywords: Molecular Biology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-09-15
    Description: Two critical challenges in the design and synthesis of molecular robots are modularity and algorithm simplicity. We demonstrate three modular building blocks for a DNA robot that performs cargo sorting at the molecular level. A simple algorithm encoding recognition between cargos and their destinations allows for a simple robot design: a single-stranded DNA with one leg and two foot domains for walking, and one arm and one hand domain for picking up and dropping off cargos. The robot explores a two-dimensional testing ground on the surface of DNA origami, picks up multiple cargos of two types that are initially at unordered locations, and delivers them to specified destinations until all molecules are sorted into two distinct piles. The robot is designed to perform a random walk without any energy supply. Exploiting this feature, a single robot can repeatedly sort multiple cargos. Localization on DNA origami allows for distinct cargo-sorting tasks to take place simultaneously in one test tube or for multiple robots to collectively perform the same task.
    Keywords: Biochemistry, Online Only
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-10-05
    Description: The realization of artificial biochemical reaction networks with unique functionality is one of the main challenges for the development of synthetic biology. Due to the reduced number of components, biochemical circuits constructed in vitro promise to be more amenable to systematic design and quantitative assessment than circuits embedded within living organisms. To make good on that promise, effective methods for composing subsystems into larger systems are needed. Here we used an artificial biochemical oscillator based on in vitro transcription and RNA degradation reactions to drive a variety of “load” processes such as the operation of a DNA-based nanomechanical device (“DNA tweezers”) or the production of a functional RNA molecule (an aptamer for malachite green). We implemented several mechanisms for coupling the load processes to the oscillator circuit and compared them based on how much the load affected the frequency and amplitude of the core oscillator, and how much of the load was effectively driven. Based on heuristic insights and computational modeling, an “insulator circuit” was developed, which strongly reduced the detrimental influence of the load on the oscillator circuit. Understanding how to design effective insulation between biochemical subsystems will be critical for the synthesis of larger and more complex systems.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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