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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-02-05
    Description: Genomic structural variants (SVs) are abundant in humans, differing from other forms of variation in extent, origin and functional impact. Despite progress in SV characterization, the nucleotide resolution architecture of most SVs remains unknown. We constructed a map of unbalanced SVs (that is, copy number variants) based on whole genome DNA sequencing data from 185 human genomes, integrating evidence from complementary SV discovery approaches with extensive experimental validations. Our map encompassed 22,025 deletions and 6,000 additional SVs, including insertions and tandem duplications. Most SVs (53%) were mapped to nucleotide resolution, which facilitated analysing their origin and functional impact. We examined numerous whole and partial gene deletions with a genotyping approach and observed a depletion of gene disruptions amongst high frequency deletions. Furthermore, we observed differences in the size spectra of SVs originating from distinct formation mechanisms, and constructed a map of SV hotspots formed by common mechanisms. Our analytical framework and SV map serves as a resource for sequencing-based association studies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077050/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077050/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mills, Ryan E -- Walter, Klaudia -- Stewart, Chip -- Handsaker, Robert E -- Chen, Ken -- Alkan, Can -- Abyzov, Alexej -- Yoon, Seungtai Chris -- Ye, Kai -- Cheetham, R Keira -- Chinwalla, Asif -- Conrad, Donald F -- Fu, Yutao -- Grubert, Fabian -- Hajirasouliha, Iman -- Hormozdiari, Fereydoun -- Iakoucheva, Lilia M -- Iqbal, Zamin -- Kang, Shuli -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Korn, Joshua -- Khurana, Ekta -- Kural, Deniz -- Lam, Hugo Y K -- Leng, Jing -- Li, Ruiqiang -- Li, Yingrui -- Lin, Chang-Yun -- Luo, Ruibang -- Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine -- Nemesh, James -- Peckham, Heather E -- Rausch, Tobias -- Scally, Aylwyn -- Shi, Xinghua -- Stromberg, Michael P -- Stutz, Adrian M -- Urban, Alexander Eckehart -- Walker, Jerilyn A -- Wu, Jiantao -- Zhang, Yujun -- Zhang, Zhengdong D -- Batzer, Mark A -- Ding, Li -- Marth, Gabor T -- McVean, Gil -- Sebat, Jonathan -- Snyder, Michael -- Wang, Jun -- Ye, Kenny -- Eichler, Evan E -- Gerstein, Mark B -- Hurles, Matthew E -- Lee, Charles -- McCarroll, Steven A -- Korbel, Jan O -- 1000 Genomes Project -- 062023/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077009/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077014/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077192/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0701805/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G1000758/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P01 HG004120/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03S1/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03S2/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P41 HG004221-03S3/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM059290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-01A1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081533-04/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-02S1/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-03/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004719-04/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH091350/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005552/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005552-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005552-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG005209/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG005209-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG005209-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Feb 3;470(7332):59-65. doi: 10.1038/nature09708.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21293372" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: DNA Copy Number Variations/*genetics ; Gene Duplication/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; *Genetics, Population ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; *Genomics ; Genotype ; Humans ; Mutagenesis, Insertional/genetics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sequence Deletion/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-09-19
    Description: We sequenced the genomes of a approximately 7,000-year-old farmer from Germany and eight approximately 8,000-year-old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analysed these and other ancient genomes with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west European hunter-gatherer related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that early European farmers had approximately 44% ancestry from a 'basal Eurasian' population that split before the diversification of other non-African lineages.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4170574/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4170574/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lazaridis, Iosif -- Patterson, Nick -- Mittnik, Alissa -- Renaud, Gabriel -- Mallick, Swapan -- Kirsanow, Karola -- Sudmant, Peter H -- Schraiber, Joshua G -- Castellano, Sergi -- Lipson, Mark -- Berger, Bonnie -- Economou, Christos -- Bollongino, Ruth -- Fu, Qiaomei -- Bos, Kirsten I -- Nordenfelt, Susanne -- Li, Heng -- de Filippo, Cesare -- Prufer, Kay -- Sawyer, Susanna -- Posth, Cosimo -- Haak, Wolfgang -- Hallgren, Fredrik -- Fornander, Elin -- Rohland, Nadin -- Delsate, Dominique -- Francken, Michael -- Guinet, Jean-Michel -- Wahl, Joachim -- Ayodo, George -- Babiker, Hamza A -- Bailliet, Graciela -- Balanovska, Elena -- Balanovsky, Oleg -- Barrantes, Ramiro -- Bedoya, Gabriel -- Ben-Ami, Haim -- Bene, Judit -- Berrada, Fouad -- Bravi, Claudio M -- Brisighelli, Francesca -- Busby, George B J -- Cali, Francesco -- Churnosov, Mikhail -- Cole, David E C -- Corach, Daniel -- Damba, Larissa -- van Driem, George -- Dryomov, Stanislav -- Dugoujon, Jean-Michel -- Fedorova, Sardana A -- Gallego Romero, Irene -- Gubina, Marina -- Hammer, Michael -- Henn, Brenna M -- Hervig, Tor -- Hodoglugil, Ugur -- Jha, Aashish R -- Karachanak-Yankova, Sena -- Khusainova, Rita -- Khusnutdinova, Elza -- Kittles, Rick -- Kivisild, Toomas -- Klitz, William -- Kucinskas, Vaidutis -- Kushniarevich, Alena -- Laredj, Leila -- Litvinov, Sergey -- Loukidis, Theologos -- Mahley, Robert W -- Melegh, Bela -- Metspalu, Ene -- Molina, Julio -- Mountain, Joanna -- Nakkalajarvi, Klemetti -- Nesheva, Desislava -- Nyambo, Thomas -- Osipova, Ludmila -- Parik, Juri -- Platonov, Fedor -- Posukh, Olga -- Romano, Valentino -- Rothhammer, Francisco -- Rudan, Igor -- Ruizbakiev, Ruslan -- Sahakyan, Hovhannes -- Sajantila, Antti -- Salas, Antonio -- Starikovskaya, Elena B -- Tarekegn, Ayele -- Toncheva, Draga -- Turdikulova, Shahlo -- Uktveryte, Ingrida -- Utevska, Olga -- Vasquez, Rene -- Villena, Mercedes -- Voevoda, Mikhail -- Winkler, Cheryl A -- Yepiskoposyan, Levon -- Zalloua, Pierre -- Zemunik, Tatijana -- Cooper, Alan -- Capelli, Cristian -- Thomas, Mark G -- Ruiz-Linares, Andres -- Tishkoff, Sarah A -- Singh, Lalji -- Thangaraj, Kumarasamy -- Villems, Richard -- Comas, David -- Sukernik, Rem -- Metspalu, Mait -- Meyer, Matthias -- Eichler, Evan E -- Burger, Joachim -- Slatkin, Montgomery -- Paabo, Svante -- Kelso, Janet -- Reich, David -- Krause, Johannes -- 8DP1ES022577-04/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/ -- GM100233/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM40282/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG004120/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HHSN26120080001E/PHS HHS/ -- P01 HG004120/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM100233/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG006399/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Sep 18;513(7518):409-13. doi: 10.1038/nature13673.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tubingen, Tubingen 72074, Germany. ; Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig 04103, Germany. ; Institute of Anthropology, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz D-55128, Germany. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. [2] Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3140, USA. ; Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; 1] Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [2] Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University, 114 18, Sweden. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig 04103, Germany. [3] Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, IVPP, CAS, Beijing 100049, China. ; Australian Centre for Ancient DNA and Environment Institute, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia. ; The Cultural Heritage Foundation, Vasteras 722 12, Sweden. ; 1] National Museum of Natural History, L-2160, Luxembourg. [2] National Center of Archaeological Research, National Museum of History and Art, L-2345, Luxembourg. ; Department of Paleoanthropology, Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment, University of Tubingen, Tubingen D-72070, Germany. ; National Museum of Natural History, L-2160, Luxembourg. ; State Office for Cultural Heritage Management Baden-Wurttemberg, Osteology, Konstanz D-78467, Germany. ; Center for Global Health and Child Development, Kisumu 40100, Kenya. ; 1] Institutes of Evolution, Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. [2] Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, Alkhod, Muscat 123, Oman. ; Laboratorio de Genetica Molecular Poblacional, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), CCT-CONICET &CICPBA, La Plata, B1906APO, Argentina. ; Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Moscow 115478, Russia. ; 1] Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Moscow 115478, Russia. [2] Vavilov Institute for General Genetics, Moscow 119991, Russia. ; Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose 2060, Costa Rica. ; Institute of Biology, Research group GENMOL, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia. ; Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa 31096, Israel. ; Department of Medical Genetics and Szentagothai Research Center, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624, Hungary. ; Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane (AUI), School of Science and Engineering, Ifrane 53000, Morocco. ; Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Institute of Legal Medicine, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome 00168, Italy. ; 1] Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. [2] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. ; Laboratorio di Genetica Molecolare, IRCCS Associazione Oasi Maria SS, Troina 94018, Italy. ; Belgorod State University, Belgorod 308015, Russia. ; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L5, Canada. ; Servicio de Huellas Digitales Geneticas, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1113 CABA, Argentina. ; Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia. ; Institute of Linguistics, University of Bern, Bern CH-3012, Switzerland. ; Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia. ; Anthropologie Moleculaire et Imagerie de Synthese, CNRS UMR 5288, Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse III, Toulouse 31000, France. ; North-Eastern Federal University and Yakut Research Center of Complex Medical Problems, Yakutsk 677013, Russia. ; Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; ARL Division of Biotechnology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA. ; Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA. ; Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen 5021, Norway. ; NextBio, Illumina, Santa Clara, California 95050, USA. ; Department of Medical Genetics, National Human Genome Center, Medical University Sofia, Sofia 1431, Bulgaria. ; 1] Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa 450054, Russia. [2] Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450074, Russia. ; College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA. ; Division of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QH, UK. ; Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3140, USA. ; Department of Human and Medical Genetics, Vilnius University, Vilnius LT-08661, Lithuania. ; Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu, 51010, Estonia. ; Translational Medicine and Neurogenetics, Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Illkirch 67404, France. ; 1] Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa 450054, Russia. [2] Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450074, Russia. [3] Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu, 51010, Estonia. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. [2] Amgen, 33 Kazantzaki Str, Ilioupolis 16342, Athens, Greece (T.L.); Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India (L.S.). ; Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas de Guatemala, Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala. ; Research Department, 23andMe, Mountain View, California 94043, USA. ; Cultural Anthropology Program, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland. ; Department of Biochemistry, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam 65001, Tanzania. ; Research Institute of Health, North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk 677000, Russia. ; Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Universita di Palermo, Palermo 90128, Italy. ; 1] Instituto de Alta Investigacion, Universidad de Tarapaca, Arica 1000000, Chile. [2] Programa de Genetica Humana ICBM Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8320000, Chile. [3] Centro de Investigaciones del Hombre en el Desierto, Arica 1000000, Chile. ; Centre for Population Health Sciences, The University of Edinburgh Medical School, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK. ; 1] Institute of Immunology, Academy of Science, Tashkent 70000, Uzbekistan. [2]. ; 1] Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu, 51010, Estonia. [2] Laboratory of Ethnogenomics, Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Yerevan 0014, Armenia. ; 1] Department of Forensic Medicine, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland. [2] Institute of Applied Genetics, Department of Molecular and Medical Genetics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas 76107, USA. ; Unidade de Xenetica, Departamento de Anatomia Patoloxica e Ciencias Forenses, and Instituto de Ciencias Forenses, Grupo de Medicina Xenomica (GMX), Facultade de Medicina, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Galcia 15872, Spain. ; Research Fellow, Henry Stewart Group, Russell House, London WC1A 2HN, UK. ; Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry Academy of Sciences Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent 100125, Uzbekistan. ; Department of Genetics and Cytology, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv 61077, Ukraine. ; 1] Instituto Boliviano de Biologia de la Altura, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, 591 2 La Paz, Bolivia. [2] UniversidadAutonoma Tomas Frias, Potosi, Bolivia. ; 1] Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia. [2] Institute of Internal Medicine, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novosibirsk 630089, Russia. [3] Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia. ; Basic Research Laboratory, NCI, NIH, Frederick National Laboratory, Leidos Biomedical, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; Laboratory of Ethnogenomics, Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Yerevan 0014, Armenia. ; 1] Lebanese American University, School of Medicine, Beirut 13-5053, Lebanon. [2] Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Medical Biology, University of Split, School of Medicine, Split 21000, Croatia. ; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. ; Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Department of Biology and Genetics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; 1] CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad 500 007, India. [2] Amgen, 33 Kazantzaki Str, Ilioupolis 16342, Athens, Greece (T.L.); Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India (L.S.). ; CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad 500 007, India. ; 1] Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology group, Tartu, 51010, Estonia. [2] Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. [3] Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn 10130, Estonia. ; Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (CSIC-UPF), Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona 08003, Spain. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. [2] Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tubingen, Tubingen 72074, Germany. [2] Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, University of Tubingen, 72070 Tubingen, Germany. [3] Max Planck Institut fur Geschichte und Naturwissenschaften, Jena 07745, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25230663" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/history/manpower ; Asia/ethnology ; Europe ; European Continental Ancestry Group/*classification/*genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Population Dynamics ; Principal Component Analysis
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-09-12
    Description: Gibbons are small arboreal apes that display an accelerated rate of evolutionary chromosomal rearrangement and occupy a key node in the primate phylogeny between Old World monkeys and great apes. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a northern white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) genome. We describe the propensity for a gibbon-specific retrotransposon (LAVA) to insert into chromosome segregation genes and alter transcription by providing a premature termination site, suggesting a possible molecular mechanism for the genome plasticity of the gibbon lineage. We further show that the gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Hoolock and Symphalangus) experienced a near-instantaneous radiation approximately 5 million years ago, coincident with major geographical changes in southeast Asia that caused cycles of habitat compression and expansion. Finally, we identify signatures of positive selection in genes important for forelimb development (TBX5) and connective tissues (COL1A1) that may have been involved in the adaptation of gibbons to their arboreal habitat.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4249732/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4249732/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Carbone, Lucia -- Harris, R Alan -- Gnerre, Sante -- Veeramah, Krishna R -- Lorente-Galdos, Belen -- Huddleston, John -- Meyer, Thomas J -- Herrero, Javier -- Roos, Christian -- Aken, Bronwen -- Anaclerio, Fabio -- Archidiacono, Nicoletta -- Baker, Carl -- Barrell, Daniel -- Batzer, Mark A -- Beal, Kathryn -- Blancher, Antoine -- Bohrson, Craig L -- Brameier, Markus -- Campbell, Michael S -- Capozzi, Oronzo -- Casola, Claudio -- Chiatante, Giorgia -- Cree, Andrew -- Damert, Annette -- de Jong, Pieter J -- Dumas, Laura -- Fernandez-Callejo, Marcos -- Flicek, Paul -- Fuchs, Nina V -- Gut, Ivo -- Gut, Marta -- Hahn, Matthew W -- Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica -- Hillier, LaDeana W -- Hubley, Robert -- Ianc, Bianca -- Izsvak, Zsuzsanna -- Jablonski, Nina G -- Johnstone, Laurel M -- Karimpour-Fard, Anis -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Kostka, Dennis -- Lazar, Nathan H -- Lee, Sandra L -- Lewis, Lora R -- Liu, Yue -- Locke, Devin P -- Mallick, Swapan -- Mendez, Fernando L -- Muffato, Matthieu -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Nevonen, Kimberly A -- O'Bleness, Majesta -- Ochis, Cornelia -- Odom, Duncan T -- Pollard, Katherine S -- Quilez, Javier -- Reich, David -- Rocchi, Mariano -- Schumann, Gerald G -- Searle, Stephen -- Sikela, James M -- Skollar, Gabriella -- Smit, Arian -- Sonmez, Kemal -- ten Hallers, Boudewijn -- Terhune, Elizabeth -- Thomas, Gregg W C -- Ullmer, Brygg -- Ventura, Mario -- Walker, Jerilyn A -- Wall, Jeffrey D -- Walter, Lutz -- Ward, Michelle C -- Wheelan, Sarah J -- Whelan, Christopher W -- White, Simon -- Wilhelm, Larry J -- Woerner, August E -- Yandell, Mark -- Zhu, Baoli -- Hammer, Michael F -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Eichler, Evan E -- Fulton, Lucinda -- Fronick, Catrina -- Muzny, Donna M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Worley, Kim C -- Rogers, Jeffrey -- Wilson, Richard K -- Gibbs, Richard A -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 15603/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 260372/European Research Council/International -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P30 AA019355/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- P30CA006973/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P51 RR000163/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM059290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002939/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG005226/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH081203/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01_HG005226/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T15 LM007088/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG007497-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U41HG007234/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- WT095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Sep 11;513(7517):195-201. doi: 10.1038/nature13679.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Oregon Health &Science University, Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. [2] Oregon National Primate Research Center, Division of Neuroscience, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA. [3] Oregon Health &Science University, Department of Molecular &Medical Genetics, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. [4] Oregon Health &Science University, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Division, Department of Medical Informatics &Clinical Epidemiology, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Nabsys, 60 Clifford Street, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, USA. ; 1] University of Arizona, ARL Division of Biotechnology, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA. [2] Stony Brook University, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook, New York 11790, USA. ; IBE, Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (UPF-CSIC), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, PRBB, Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 1705 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Oregon Health &Science University, Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; 1] European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. [2] The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK. [3] Bill Lyons Informatics Center, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6DD, UK (J.He); Seven Bridges Genomics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (D.P.L.); Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA (F.L.M.); BioNano Genomics, San Diego, California 92121, USA (B.t.H.); University of Chicago, Department of Human Genetics, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA (M.C.W.); Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (C.W.W.); The CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China (B.Z.). ; Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Gene Bank of Primates, German Primate Center, Gottingen 37077, Germany. ; 1] European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. [2] European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. ; University of Bari, Department of Biology, Via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari, Italy. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Louisiana State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. ; University of Paul Sabatier, Toulouse 31062, France. ; The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA. ; Texas A&M University, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, College Station, Texas 77843, USA. ; Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Babes-Bolyai-University, Institute for Interdisciplinary Research in Bio-Nano-Sciences, Molecular Biology Center, Cluj-Napoca 400084, Romania. ; Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, BACPAC Resources, Oakland, California 94609, USA. ; University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA. ; Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin 13125, Germany. ; Centro Nacional de Analisis Genomico (CNAG), Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain. ; Indiana University, School of Informatics and Computing, Bloomington, Indiana 47408, USA. ; The Genome Center at Washington University, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, Saint Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98109-5234, USA. ; The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; University of Arizona, ARL Division of Biotechnology, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA. ; University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Developmental Biology, Department of Computational and Systems Biology, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Oregon Health &Science University, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Division, Department of Medical Informatics &Clinical Epidemiology, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; 1] The Genome Center at Washington University, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, Saint Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. [2] Bill Lyons Informatics Center, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6DD, UK (J.He); Seven Bridges Genomics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (D.P.L.); Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA (F.L.M.); BioNano Genomics, San Diego, California 92121, USA (B.t.H.); University of Chicago, Department of Human Genetics, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA (M.C.W.); Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (C.W.W.); The CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China (B.Z.). ; Harvard Medical School, Department of Genetics, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] University of Arizona, ARL Division of Biotechnology, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA. [2] Bill Lyons Informatics Center, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6DD, UK (J.He); Seven Bridges Genomics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (D.P.L.); Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA (F.L.M.); BioNano Genomics, San Diego, California 92121, USA (B.t.H.); University of Chicago, Department of Human Genetics, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA (M.C.W.); Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (C.W.W.); The CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China (B.Z.). ; Oregon National Primate Research Center, Division of Neuroscience, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA. ; 1] European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. [2] University of Cambridge, Cancer Research UK-Cambridge Institute, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK. ; 1] University of California, Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, California 94158-226, USA. [2] Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0794, USA. [3] Division of Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0794, USA. ; Paul Ehrlich Institute, Division of Medical Biotechnology, 63225 Langen, Germany. ; European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. ; Gibbon Conservation Center, 19100 Esguerra Rd, Santa Clarita, California 91350, USA. ; 1] Oregon Health &Science University, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Division, Department of Medical Informatics &Clinical Epidemiology, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. [2] Oregon Health &Science University, Center for Spoken Language Understanding, Institute on Development and Disability, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; 1] Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, BACPAC Resources, Oakland, California 94609, USA. [2] Bill Lyons Informatics Center, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6DD, UK (J.He); Seven Bridges Genomics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (D.P.L.); Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA (F.L.M.); BioNano Genomics, San Diego, California 92121, USA (B.t.H.); University of Chicago, Department of Human Genetics, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA (M.C.W.); Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (C.W.W.); The CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China (B.Z.). ; Louisiana State University, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA. ; 1] Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0794, USA. [2] Division of Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0794, USA. ; 1] University of Cambridge, Cancer Research UK-Cambridge Institute, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK. [2] Bill Lyons Informatics Center, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6DD, UK (J.He); Seven Bridges Genomics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (D.P.L.); Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA (F.L.M.); BioNano Genomics, San Diego, California 92121, USA (B.t.H.); University of Chicago, Department of Human Genetics, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA (M.C.W.); Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (C.W.W.); The CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China (B.Z.). ; 1] Oregon Health &Science University, Center for Spoken Language Understanding, Institute on Development and Disability, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. [2] Bill Lyons Informatics Center, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6DD, UK (J.He); Seven Bridges Genomics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (D.P.L.); Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA (F.L.M.); BioNano Genomics, San Diego, California 92121, USA (B.t.H.); University of Chicago, Department of Human Genetics, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA (M.C.W.); Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA (C.W.W.); The CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China (B.Z.). ; 1] IBE, Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (UPF-CSIC), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, PRBB, Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. [2] Centro Nacional de Analisis Genomico (CNAG), Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25209798" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Evolution, Molecular ; Genome/*genetics ; Hominidae/classification/genetics ; Humans ; Hylobates/*classification/*genetics ; *Karyotype ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Phylogeny ; Retroelements/genetics ; Selection, Genetic ; Transcription Termination, Genetic
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-11-05
    Description: Whole exome sequencing has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding the genetic architecture of human disease. Here we apply it to more than 2,500 simplex families, each having a child with an autistic spectrum disorder. By comparing affected to unaffected siblings, we show that 13% of de novo missense mutations and 43% of de novo likely gene-disrupting (LGD) mutations contribute to 12% and 9% of diagnoses, respectively. Including copy number variants, coding de novo mutations contribute to about 30% of all simplex and 45% of female diagnoses. Almost all LGD mutations occur opposite wild-type alleles. LGD targets in affected females significantly overlap the targets in males of lower intelligence quotient (IQ), but neither overlaps significantly with targets in males of higher IQ. We estimate that LGD mutation in about 400 genes can contribute to the joint class of affected females and males of lower IQ, with an overlapping and similar number of genes vulnerable to contributory missense mutation. LGD targets in the joint class overlap with published targets for intellectual disability and schizophrenia, and are enriched for chromatin modifiers, FMRP-associated genes and embryonically expressed genes. Most of the significance for the latter comes from affected females.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4313871/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4313871/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Iossifov, Ivan -- O'Roak, Brian J -- Sanders, Stephan J -- Ronemus, Michael -- Krumm, Niklas -- Levy, Dan -- Stessman, Holly A -- Witherspoon, Kali T -- Vives, Laura -- Patterson, Karynne E -- Smith, Joshua D -- Paeper, Bryan -- Nickerson, Deborah A -- Dea, Jeanselle -- Dong, Shan -- Gonzalez, Luis E -- Mandell, Jeffrey D -- Mane, Shrikant M -- Murtha, Michael T -- Sullivan, Catherine A -- Walker, Michael F -- Waqar, Zainulabedin -- Wei, Liping -- Willsey, A Jeremy -- Yamrom, Boris -- Lee, Yoon-ha -- Grabowska, Ewa -- Dalkic, Ertugrul -- Wang, Zihua -- Marks, Steven -- Andrews, Peter -- Leotta, Anthony -- Kendall, Jude -- Hakker, Inessa -- Rosenbaum, Julie -- Ma, Beicong -- Rodgers, Linda -- Troge, Jennifer -- Narzisi, Giuseppe -- Yoon, Seungtai -- Schatz, Michael C -- Ye, Kenny -- McCombie, W Richard -- Shendure, Jay -- Eichler, Evan E -- State, Matthew W -- Wigler, Michael -- P30 CA016359/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007266/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 HD083091/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000142/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 13;515(7526):216-21. doi: 10.1038/nature13908. Epub 2014 Oct 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Molecular &Medical Genetics, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97208, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA [2] Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA [2] Center for Bioinformatics, State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. ; Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Yale Center for Genomic Analysis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; 1] Center for Bioinformatics, State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China [2] National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, China. ; 1] Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA [2] New York Genome Center, New York, New York 10013, USA. ; 1] Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA [2] Department of Medical Biology, Bulent Ecevit University School of Medicine, 67600 Zonguldak, Turkey. ; Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA [2] Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA [3] Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA [4] Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363768" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Child ; Child Development Disorders, Pervasive/*genetics ; Cluster Analysis ; Exome/genetics ; Female ; Genes ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Humans ; Intelligence Tests ; Male ; Mutation/*genetics ; Open Reading Frames/*genetics ; Reproducibility of Results
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-11-11
    Description: The human genome is arguably the most complete mammalian reference assembly, yet more than 160 euchromatic gaps remain and aspects of its structural variation remain poorly understood ten years after its completion. To identify missing sequence and genetic variation, here we sequence and analyse a haploid human genome (CHM1) using single-molecule, real-time DNA sequencing. We close or extend 55% of the remaining interstitial gaps in the human GRCh37 reference genome--78% of which carried long runs of degenerate short tandem repeats, often several kilobases in length, embedded within (G+C)-rich genomic regions. We resolve the complete sequence of 26,079 euchromatic structural variants at the base-pair level, including inversions, complex insertions and long tracts of tandem repeats. Most have not been previously reported, with the greatest increases in sensitivity occurring for events less than 5 kilobases in size. Compared to the human reference, we find a significant insertional bias (3:1) in regions corresponding to complex insertions and long short tandem repeats. Our results suggest a greater complexity of the human genome in the form of variation of longer and more complex repetitive DNA that can now be largely resolved with the application of this longer-read sequencing technology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4317254/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4317254/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chaisson, Mark J P -- Huddleston, John -- Dennis, Megan Y -- Sudmant, Peter H -- Malig, Maika -- Hormozdiari, Fereydoun -- Antonacci, Francesca -- Surti, Urvashi -- Sandstrom, Richard -- Boitano, Matthew -- Landolin, Jane M -- Stamatoyannopoulos, John A -- Hunkapiller, Michael W -- Korlach, Jonas -- Eichler, Evan E -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- K99 NS083627/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- K99NS083627/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG007497/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG007635/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jan 29;517(7536):608-11. doi: 10.1038/nature13907. Epub 2014 Nov 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita degli Studi di Bari 'Aldo Moro', Bari 70125, Italy. ; Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA. ; Pacific Biosciences of California, Inc., Menlo Park, California 94025, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25383537" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chromosome Inversion/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10/genetics ; Cloning, Molecular ; GC Rich Sequence/genetics ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; *Genomics ; Haploidy ; Humans ; Mutagenesis, Insertional/genetics ; Reference Standards ; Sequence Analysis, DNA/*methods ; Tandem Repeat Sequences/genetics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2009-10-09
    Description: Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of genetic variants associated with complex human diseases and traits, and have provided valuable insights into their genetic architecture. Most variants identified so far confer relatively small increments in risk, and explain only a small proportion of familial clustering, leading many to question how the remaining, 'missing' heritability can be explained. Here we examine potential sources of missing heritability and propose research strategies, including and extending beyond current genome-wide association approaches, to illuminate the genetics of complex diseases and enhance its potential to enable effective disease prevention or treatment.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2831613/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2831613/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Manolio, Teri A -- Collins, Francis S -- Cox, Nancy J -- Goldstein, David B -- Hindorff, Lucia A -- Hunter, David J -- McCarthy, Mark I -- Ramos, Erin M -- Cardon, Lon R -- Chakravarti, Aravinda -- Cho, Judy H -- Guttmacher, Alan E -- Kong, Augustine -- Kruglyak, Leonid -- Mardis, Elaine -- Rotimi, Charles N -- Slatkin, Montgomery -- Valle, David -- Whittemore, Alice S -- Boehnke, Michael -- Clark, Andrew G -- Eichler, Evan E -- Gibson, Greg -- Haines, Jonathan L -- Mackay, Trudy F C -- McCarroll, Steven A -- Visscher, Peter M -- P50 GM065509/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM065509-080006/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003229/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL072904/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL072904-07/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH084695/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL084706/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR024992/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2009 Oct 8;461(7265):747-53. doi: 10.1038/nature08494.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Human Genome Research Institute, Building 31, Room 4B09, 31 Center Drive, MSC 2152, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-2152, USA. manoliot@mail.nih.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19812666" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Genetic Diseases, Inborn/*genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genetics, Medical/*methods/trends ; Genome-Wide Association Study/methods/trends ; Humans ; Inheritance Patterns/genetics ; Pedigree
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2010-02-19
    Description: The genetic structure of the indigenous hunter-gatherer peoples of southern Africa, the oldest known lineage of modern human, is important for understanding human diversity. Studies based on mitochondrial and small sets of nuclear markers have shown that these hunter-gatherers, known as Khoisan, San, or Bushmen, are genetically divergent from other humans. However, until now, fully sequenced human genomes have been limited to recently diverged populations. Here we present the complete genome sequences of an indigenous hunter-gatherer from the Kalahari Desert and a Bantu from southern Africa, as well as protein-coding regions from an additional three hunter-gatherers from disparate regions of the Kalahari. We characterize the extent of whole-genome and exome diversity among the five men, reporting 1.3 million novel DNA differences genome-wide, including 13,146 novel amino acid variants. In terms of nucleotide substitutions, the Bushmen seem to be, on average, more different from each other than, for example, a European and an Asian. Observed genomic differences between the hunter-gatherers and others may help to pinpoint genetic adaptations to an agricultural lifestyle. Adding the described variants to current databases will facilitate inclusion of southern Africans in medical research efforts, particularly when family and medical histories can be correlated with genome-wide data.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3890430/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3890430/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schuster, Stephan C -- Miller, Webb -- Ratan, Aakrosh -- Tomsho, Lynn P -- Giardine, Belinda -- Kasson, Lindsay R -- Harris, Robert S -- Petersen, Desiree C -- Zhao, Fangqing -- Qi, Ji -- Alkan, Can -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Sun, Yazhou -- Drautz, Daniela I -- Bouffard, Pascal -- Muzny, Donna M -- Reid, Jeffrey G -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Wang, Qingyu -- Burhans, Richard -- Riemer, Cathy -- Wittekindt, Nicola E -- Moorjani, Priya -- Tindall, Elizabeth A -- Danko, Charles G -- Teo, Wee Siang -- Buboltz, Anne M -- Zhang, Zhenhai -- Ma, Qianyi -- Oosthuysen, Arno -- Steenkamp, Abraham W -- Oostuisen, Hermann -- Venter, Philippus -- Gajewski, John -- Zhang, Yu -- Pugh, B Franklin -- Makova, Kateryna D -- Nekrutenko, Anton -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Patterson, Nick -- Pringle, Tom H -- Chiaromonte, Francesca -- Mullikin, James C -- Eichler, Evan E -- Hardison, Ross C -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Harkins, Timothy T -- Hayes, Vanessa M -- R01 GM087472/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004909/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01GM087472/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Feb 18;463(7283):943-7. doi: 10.1038/nature08795.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Pennsylvania State University, Center for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics, 310 Wartik Lab, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. scs@bx.psu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20164927" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: African Continental Ancestry Group/*genetics ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Ethnic Groups/*genetics ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Exons/genetics ; Genetics, Medical ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Humans ; Phylogeny ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; South Africa/ethnology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2010-12-24
    Description: Using DNA extracted from a finger bone found in Denisova Cave in southern Siberia, we have sequenced the genome of an archaic hominin to about 1.9-fold coverage. This individual is from a group that shares a common origin with Neanderthals. This population was not involved in the putative gene flow from Neanderthals into Eurasians; however, the data suggest that it contributed 4-6% of its genetic material to the genomes of present-day Melanesians. We designate this hominin population 'Denisovans' and suggest that it may have been widespread in Asia during the Late Pleistocene epoch. A tooth found in Denisova Cave carries a mitochondrial genome highly similar to that of the finger bone. This tooth shares no derived morphological features with Neanderthals or modern humans, further indicating that Denisovans have an evolutionary history distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4306417/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4306417/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reich, David -- Green, Richard E -- Kircher, Martin -- Krause, Johannes -- Patterson, Nick -- Durand, Eric Y -- Viola, Bence -- Briggs, Adrian W -- Stenzel, Udo -- Johnson, Philip L F -- Maricic, Tomislav -- Good, Jeffrey M -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Alkan, Can -- Fu, Qiaomei -- Mallick, Swapan -- Li, Heng -- Meyer, Matthias -- Eichler, Evan E -- Stoneking, Mark -- Richards, Michael -- Talamo, Sahra -- Shunkov, Michael V -- Derevianko, Anatoli P -- Hublin, Jean-Jacques -- Kelso, Janet -- Slatkin, Montgomery -- Paabo, Svante -- R01 GM040282/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM40282/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Dec 23;468(7327):1053-60. doi: 10.1038/nature09710.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21179161" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Asia ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Europe ; Finger Phalanges/chemistry ; *Fossils ; *Gene Flow ; Genome/*genetics ; Hominidae/*classification/*genetics ; Humans ; Melanesia ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Siberia ; Tooth/anatomy & histology/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-01-29
    Description: 'Orang-utan' is derived from a Malay term meaning 'man of the forest' and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orang-utan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orang-utan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orang-utan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orang-utan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe a primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orang-utan genome structure. Orang-utans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400,000 years ago, is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orang-utan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (N(e)) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral N(e) after the split, while Bornean N(e) declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new opportunities in evolutionary genomics, insights into hominid biology, and an extensive database of variation for conservation efforts.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060778/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060778/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Locke, Devin P -- Hillier, LaDeana W -- Warren, Wesley C -- Worley, Kim C -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Muzny, Donna M -- Yang, Shiaw-Pyng -- Wang, Zhengyuan -- Chinwalla, Asif T -- Minx, Pat -- Mitreva, Makedonka -- Cook, Lisa -- Delehaunty, Kim D -- Fronick, Catrina -- Schmidt, Heather -- Fulton, Lucinda A -- Fulton, Robert S -- Nelson, Joanne O -- Magrini, Vincent -- Pohl, Craig -- Graves, Tina A -- Markovic, Chris -- Cree, Andy -- Dinh, Huyen H -- Hume, Jennifer -- Kovar, Christie L -- Fowler, Gerald R -- Lunter, Gerton -- Meader, Stephen -- Heger, Andreas -- Ponting, Chris P -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Alkan, Can -- Chen, Lin -- Cheng, Ze -- Kidd, Jeffrey M -- Eichler, Evan E -- White, Simon -- Searle, Stephen -- Vilella, Albert J -- Chen, Yuan -- Flicek, Paul -- Ma, Jian -- Raney, Brian -- Suh, Bernard -- Burhans, Richard -- Herrero, Javier -- Haussler, David -- Faria, Rui -- Fernando, Olga -- Darre, Fleur -- Farre, Domenec -- Gazave, Elodie -- Oliva, Meritxell -- Navarro, Arcadi -- Roberto, Roberta -- Capozzi, Oronzo -- Archidiacono, Nicoletta -- Della Valle, Giuliano -- Purgato, Stefania -- Rocchi, Mariano -- Konkel, Miriam K -- Walker, Jerilyn A -- Ullmer, Brygg -- Batzer, Mark A -- Smit, Arian F A -- Hubley, Robert -- Casola, Claudio -- Schrider, Daniel R -- Hahn, Matthew W -- Quesada, Victor -- Puente, Xose S -- Ordonez, Gonzalo R -- Lopez-Otin, Carlos -- Vinar, Tomas -- Brejova, Brona -- Ratan, Aakrosh -- Harris, Robert S -- Miller, Webb -- Kosiol, Carolin -- Lawson, Heather A -- Taliwal, Vikas -- Martins, Andre L -- Siepel, Adam -- Roychoudhury, Arindam -- Ma, Xin -- Degenhardt, Jeremiah -- Bustamante, Carlos D -- Gutenkunst, Ryan N -- Mailund, Thomas -- Dutheil, Julien Y -- Hobolth, Asger -- Schierup, Mikkel H -- Ryder, Oliver A -- Yoshinaga, Yuko -- de Jong, Pieter J -- Weinstock, George M -- Rogers, Jeffrey -- Mardis, Elaine R -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Wilson, Richard K -- G0501331/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- HG002238/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- MC_U137761446/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P01 AG022064/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM059290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM59290/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002939/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079-08/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 27;469(7331):529-33. doi: 10.1038/nature09687.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Genome Center at Washington University, Washington University School of Medicine, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, Saint Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. dlocke@wustl.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21270892" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Centromere/genetics ; Cerebrosides/metabolism ; Chromosomes ; Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Rearrangement/genetics ; Genetic Speciation ; *Genetic Variation ; Genetics, Population ; Genome/*genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Phylogeny ; Pongo abelii/*genetics ; Pongo pygmaeus/*genetics ; Population Density ; Population Dynamics ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-06-23
    Description: Two African apes are the closest living relatives of humans: the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). Although they are similar in many respects, bonobos and chimpanzees differ strikingly in key social and sexual behaviours, and for some of these traits they show more similarity with humans than with each other. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the bonobo genome to study its evolutionary relationship with the chimpanzee and human genomes. We find that more than three per cent of the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than these are to each other. These regions allow various aspects of the ancestry of the two ape species to be reconstructed. In addition, many of the regions that overlap genes may eventually help us understand the genetic basis of phenotypes that humans share with one of the two apes to the exclusion of the other.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3498939/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3498939/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Prufer, Kay -- Munch, Kasper -- Hellmann, Ines -- Akagi, Keiko -- Miller, Jason R -- Walenz, Brian -- Koren, Sergey -- Sutton, Granger -- Kodira, Chinnappa -- Winer, Roger -- Knight, James R -- Mullikin, James C -- Meader, Stephen J -- Ponting, Chris P -- Lunter, Gerton -- Higashino, Saneyuki -- Hobolth, Asger -- Dutheil, Julien -- Karakoc, Emre -- Alkan, Can -- Sajjadian, Saba -- Catacchio, Claudia Rita -- Ventura, Mario -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- Eichler, Evan E -- Andre, Claudine -- Atencia, Rebeca -- Mugisha, Lawrence -- Junhold, Jorg -- Patterson, Nick -- Siebauer, Michael -- Good, Jeffrey M -- Fischer, Anne -- Ptak, Susan E -- Lachmann, Michael -- Symer, David E -- Mailund, Thomas -- Schierup, Mikkel H -- Andres, Aida M -- Kelso, Janet -- Paabo, Svante -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Z/09/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 2R01GM077117-04A1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- MC_U137761446/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 GM077117/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jun 28;486(7404):527-31. doi: 10.1038/nature11128.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. pruefer@eva.mpg.de〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722832" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; DNA Transposable Elements/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Duplication/genetics ; Genetic Variation/*genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genotype ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pan paniscus/*genetics ; Pan troglodytes/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Phylogeny ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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