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  • 1
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper focuses on fertility choices in Brazil, a country where soap operas (novelas) portray families that are much smaller than in reality, to study the effects of television on individual behavior. Using Census data for the period 1970-1991, the paper finds that women living in areas covered by the Globo signal have significantly lower fertility. The effect is strongest for women of lower socioeconomic status and for women in the central and late phases of their fertility cycle. Finally, the paper provides evidence that novelas, rather than television in general, affected individual choices.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Fernsehprogramm ; Manipulation ; Verhalten ; Frauen ; Familienplanung ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper analyzes the evolution of gender differences in schooling attendance and attainment in Latin America and the Caribbean, for both adults who left the educational system and children in school. For individuals 21 years old and above the paper uses a cohort analysis of school attainment. The results indicate that the schooling gap has closed for the cohort born at the end of the 1960s. Since then, the gap has reversed such that within the cohort born in 1980, females have, on average, - of a schooling year more than males. During the four decades of birth cohorts of our analysis (1940-1980) the gender gap in attainment has moved in favor of females at a pace of 0.27 years of schooling per decade. A decomposition exercise suggests that the changes in the schooling gap are mainly explained by the educational attainment of females at the higher levels, rather than improvements in the early years of education. An analysis of attendance and attainment among girls and boys between 6 and 18, for Bolivia, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru (the countries that have not closed the gap in adult schooling attainment) reveals noticeable gender differences, favoring boys, only among older children of the lowest income quintiles and indigenous ethnicity.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Educational Gender Gap ; School Attainment ; School attendance ; Marital Status : Latin America
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank, Office of the Chief Economist
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper presents new evidence for major world regions and for the most populous countries in each region on associations between the average ages of populations and three groups of economic outcomes: (1) macroeconomic aggregates (domestic saving as a share of GDP, GDP per capita, capital per worker and tax revenue as a share of GDP); (2) governmental expenditures on education and health; and (3) social indicators (inequality, unemployment, homicide rates, and schooling progression rates). The results suggest that the variables considered follow clear age-related patterns, that the patterns differ by regions, and that the patterns differ with different policy regimes related to trade openness, domestic financial market deepening and macroeconomic volatility. The evidence is consistent with the possibility that some age structure shifts can provide favorable conditions for development. Apparently regions such as East Asia in recent decades have been able to benefit from this demographic opportunity. However, in others such as Latin America and the Caribbean--which is at the verge of experiencing the largest age structure shifts in the coming decades--creating an adequate economic environment to translate the opportunity into higher living standards for its population is a major challenge.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Öffentliche Ausgaben ; Öffentliche Sozialausgaben ; Welt ; Alternde Bevölkerung ; Makroökonomischer Einfluss
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper analyzes the recent performance of Latin American labor markets. We find that unemployment rates are on the rise in most countries and sub-regions of Latin America. The rise in unemployment over the 1990s is not driven by a higher proportion of women, adults or urban workers in the labor force, nor can it be attributed to an increasing demand for skilled workers. In a few countries, increasing unemployment is caused by falling employment rates. In the rest, unemployment rates can be explained by a large rise in participation that has not been fully absorbed by increases in employment. We also find that a large and in many countries growing proportion of workers are employed at jobs that pay very low wages. Finally, returns to higher education are increasing while returns to secondary education are declining in almost all countries.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Lateinamerika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank, Office of the Chief Economist
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Schooling is a major factor in economic development. There is extensive empirical literature on what determines schooling attainment. But most of this literature uses micro data to explore connections between schooling attainment and family background and experiences, local markets, local schools and other community characteristics. These studies generally have not linked schooling attainment closely to changes in aggregate economic conditions. This paper uses a new high quality data set for 18 Latin American and Caribbean countries to assess the effects of macro conditions on schooling attainment. Household survey data are used to construct a quasi panel with information on attainment for birth cohorts born between 1930 and 1970, which is merged with country-specific aggregate data. We use the data to document schooling progress in Latin America and estimate multivariate relations for schooling attainment by birth cohorts as related to sets of variables for macroeconomic stability, factor endowments, demographic developments, institutions and culture and religion. These estimates are used to decompose the change in schooling progress by decade, and to explore the causes of the slowdown in schooling accumulation in the region since the 1980s debt crisis.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bildungsinvestition ; Allgemeinbildende Schule ; Entwicklung ; Lateinamerika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Approximately 14 percent of births are unregistered in Latin America according to estimates by UNICEF (2001). Children who lack an official birth certificate can be denied access to social services, including enrolling in school and accessing health services. This paper examines the under-registration of births in six Latin American countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Peru, and Nicaragua) using Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Under-registration of children younger than 5 is found to range from 8. 4 percent in Peru to 25. 8 percent in the Dominican Republic. Striking regional differences are found in all six countries.
    Description: En América Latina se deja de inscribir en el registro civil aproximadamente 14% de los nacimientos, según un cálculo de la UNICEF (2001). A los niños que carecen de un documento donde conste su nacimiento se les puede negar el acceso a servicios sociales, incluida la matriculación en la escuela y el acceso a servicios médicos. En este trabajo se analiza la falta de registro de nacimientos en seis países latinoamericanos `Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, República Dominicana, Perú y Nicaragua` empleando encuestas demográficas y de servicios de salud (DHS, por sus siglas en inglés). Se halló que la falta de inscripción de niños de menos de cinco años va de 8,4% en Perú a 25,8% en República Dominicana. En los seis países se hallaron diferencias regionales muy considerables. Baje el Archivo PDF
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Kommunalverwaltung ; Lateinamerika ; Fertilität
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: In the Latin American context, Chile has the highest level of per capita income and the human development index, though the distribution of income is quite unequal. Unlike Uruguay, Chile has one of the more unequal income distributions of the region. In 2003, Chile had Gini Coefficient of 8.5 points higher than Uruguay. Using micro/simulations, the analysis shows that most of the difference regarding income distribution comes from the wealthier households, particularly those that belong to the top 2%. Those households get the greatest proportion of resources coming from non-labor income. At the same time, the difference in returns to higher education explains another 20% of the income differences between Chile and Uruguay. Social conditions such as social security benefits and the participation of women in the labor market are not significant to explain the differences between these countries. Finally, this paper shows that national account adjustment to income information in Chilean households´ survey explains a third of the Gini coefficient gap between Chile and Uruguay, without the national account adjustment, the income distribution gap among both countries would diminish in three points from earlier estimation. Even though this significative reduction the reasons to explain the gap would remain identical than previous analysis.
    Keywords: D3 ; J2 ; J3 ; ddc:330 ; microsimulation ; income distribution , inequality ; pensions ; labor participation ; returns to schooling ; Einkommensverteilung ; Disparitätsmaß ; Regionale Einkommensverteilung ; Mikrosimulation ; Chile ; Uruguay
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 8
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    Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank, Office of the Chief Economist
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: This paper investigates the effects of short-run economic shocks on children`s progress through school in urban Brazil using a unique panel data set. The severe problem of grade repetition in Brazil contributes to overall low education levels. Of children ages 10-15 who are enrolled in school, only 69 percent advance on average to the next grade. This paper investigates whether children`s effort on schoolwork is diminished when parents experience a transitory shock to income.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bildungsniveau ; Schüler ; Haushaltseinkommen ; Schock ; Brasilien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: There is a recent renewal of interest in the relation between shifts in age structures of populations and various economic outcomes. These shifts are triggered by changes in fertility and mortality that take place some years before becoming apparent in the standard age structure and that may create windows of opportunity for subsequent development. A large number of countries in the world are still experiencing, or probably about to experience, fertility declines. This paper first characterizes differences in fertility and mortality and in related dependency ratios across regions and over time. The paper then uses a panel of 96 countries covering the period 1965-1995 to decompose the differences in fertility rates between developed and developing countries and the differences in fertility between 1960 and 1995 for several developing regions and for 22 individual countries in the Latin American and Caribbean region. These decompositions indicate that the main correlates of fertility differences across space and over time are female schooling and health, with the former having larger associations with differential fertility among regions/countries at a point of time and the latter having larger associations with fertility declines over time. This suggests that the importance of associations of increased female schooling relative to those of improved health may be overstated in the literature, which is substantially based on inferring longitudinal relations from cross-sectional data.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Fertilität ; Frauenbildung ; Gesundheitsvorsorge ; Bevölkerungsstruktur ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-01-24
    Description: Conditional transfer programs are becoming a common approach to influence household decisions. The evidence to date is that these programs are good at promoting certain outcomes such as school attendance, but that other outcomes such as reducing child labor are more difficult to achieve. This study examines the impact of Superémonos, a conditional transfer program in Costa Rica, which provides poor families with a subsidy for the purchase of food conditional upon children regularly attending school. Using three different empirical techniques—simple comparison of mean outcomes, regression analysis and propensity score matching—we examine the program’s impact on school attendance, performance in school and child labor. We find strong evidence that the program achieves its goal of improving school attendance and much weaker evidence regarding school performance. The program does not reduce the likelihood that youth will work. These findings are discussed in the context of the results from impact evaluations of other conditional transfer programs.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Öffentliche Sozialleistungen ; Bildungsverhalten ; Kinderarbeit ; Allgemeinbildende Schule ; Costa Rica
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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