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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The gamma ray monitor1 consists of a shielded 3 inch by 3 inch Nal(TJ) crystal located in the rotating wheel compartment of OSO-7. Two pulse height spectra are accumulated simultaneously in the solar and background quadrants (Fig. 1) over - 90 wheel rotations in a 377-channel quadratic2 pulse ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-06-24
    Description: Observations of the 0.511 MeV positron annihilation, gamma ray on the OSO-7 satellite are presented. Variables which affect the counting rate are discussed. An upper limit flux of .0076 photons/sq cm/sec is obtained for the quiet sun and a positive solar flux of .063(+ or - .0002) photons/sq cm/sec is obtained for the 3B flare of 4 August 1972. The width of this annihilation line gives an upper limit temperature for the annihilation region of approximately 6 million K. An analysis of the line width and position also shows that the contribution to the line from positronium annihilation is less than 100% at the 99% confidence level. An upper limit is also found for an isotropic cosmic flux.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-139585
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9508
    Keywords: neutrons ; scintillators ; radiation detectors ; solar flares
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We report on the response of a prototype detector to medium energy neutrons. The neutrons were produced by n-p scattering of a neutron beam on a hydrogen target. The measurements provide unique data on the efficiency and response of large NaI scintillators to neutrons in the energy range 36–709 MeV. We apply the results to the high-energy mode of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite by estimating its efficiency for neutron detection. This estimate is compared to earlier Monte Carlo calculations of the GRS efficiency.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The backgrounds in the OSO-7 Gamma-Ray Monitor and the Solar Maximum Mission Gamma-Ray Spectrometer are compared. After scaling to the same volume, the background spectra agree to within 30 percent. This shows that analyses which successfully describe the background in one detector can be applied to similar detectors of different sizes and on different platforms. The background produced in the SMM spectrometer by a single trapped-radiation belt passage is also studied. This background is found to be dominated by a positron-annihilation line and a continuum spectrum with a high energy cutoff at 5 MeV.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The University of New Hampshire large gamma-ray detector observed the galactic center region during a balloon flight from Alice Springs, Australia on 1977 November 21-22. The absence of any observable line at 6.13 MeV or its escape-peak energy makes it possible to place an upper limit of 8.1 x 10 to the -4th photons/(sq cm s) at the 99% confidence level on the 0-16 de-excitation line at this energy from the galactic disk in the direction of the center. This limit restricts the interpretation given by Willett et al. (1979) of the line at 6.13 MeV which they observed while viewing the galactic anticenter. The present results indicate that it is highly unlikely that the line which these authors report is due to dark nebulae or the quiet sun. Possible explanations for their observation are atmospheric background, local production in the detector, a localized cosmic source in the direction of the galactic anticenter, or a statistical fluctuation.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 244
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: Nature; 241; Feb. 2
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: A directional detector for gamma-ray astronomy has been developed to image sources in the energy range 0.1 to 5 MeV. An array of 35 gain stabilized bismuth germanate detectors, together with a coded aperture mask based on a uniformly redundant array allows imaging in 4 deg square sky bins over a 16 x 24 deg field-of-view. The position of a strong point source, such as the Crab Nebula, can be determined to within not more than about 1 deg. A complementary 'anti-mask' greatly reduces systematic effects arising from nonuniform background rates amongst the detectors. The telescope has an effective area of 190 sq cm and an energy resolution of 19.5 percent FWHM at 662 keV. Results of laboratory tests of the imaging system, including the ability to image multiple sources, uniformity of response over the field-of-view, and the effect of the 'anti-mask', are in good agreement with computer simulations. Features of the flight detector system are described and results of laboratory tests and computer simulations are reviewed. A balloon flight of the telescope is planned for the fall of 1982.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 3; 4, 19; 1983
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  • 8
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The photofraction of a 5.1 cm x 2.0 cm bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillator was measured over a gamma-ray energy range of 0.2 to 6.1 MeV. Several methods, used to minimize the effect of room scattering on the measurement, are discussed. These include a gamma-gamma coincidence technique, a beta-gamma coincidence technique, and the use of sources calibrated with a standard 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm sodium iodide scintillator.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (ISSN 0018-9499); NS-32; 538-540
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The statistical reliability of reported positive observations of solar and cosmic gamma-ray lines has been evaluated. The relative probability that each measurement is due to a real source rather than to an accidental fluctuation in the background has been determined, and it is found that the results are statistically compelling in only a small fraction of the reported observations. At present, extreme caution must be exercised in drawing astrophysical conclusions from reports of the detection of cosmic gamma-ray lines.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 242
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: A gamma ray telescope is being developed to operate in the energy range 100 keV to 5 MeV, utilizing coded aperture imaging. The design incorporates a mask pattern based on a Uniformly Redundant Array (URA), which has been shown to have ideal imaging characteristics. A mask-anti-mask procedure is used to eliminate the effects of any possible systematic variations in detector background rates. The detector array is composed of 35 elements of the high-Z material Bismuth Germanate (BGO). Results of laboratory testing of the imaging properties will be presented. A southern hemisphere balloon flight is planned for 1982 with the goal of observing the 0.511 MeV radiation from the Galactic Center. Computer calculations show that a point source of this radiation can be located to within + or - 1 deg.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
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