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  • 1
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    Compass Publications
    In:  Sea Technology, 35 (4). pp. 34-42.
    Publication Date: 2016-09-07
    Description: Deep-sea moorings, used to collect data and samples at fixed positions over long time periods, have increased use with the collecting of particles for biological and chemical analyses. Costs and efforts in the design, deployment, and recovery of deep-sea moorings are considerable, but significant results can be obtained that are not attainable otherwise. Moorings are difficult to retrieve because of difficulties in determining their exact position and release from the seabed. This paper describes an investigation of fundamental problems by using the manned submersibles Mir I and Mir 2 embarked on the Russian R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. The exact position of the moorings on the seabed and the reasons for their failure to release were determined.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1991-09-01
    Description: Die wichtigsten Probleme bei der Analytik von chlorierten Biphenylen im Meerwasser hängen mit folgenden Faktoren zusammen: 1) mit ihren äußerst niedrigen Konzentrationen in Anwesenheit vieler anderer organischer verbindungen, die in 106 bis 108fach höheren Konzentrationen vorliegen, 2) mit der Gefahr, die Proben mit störenden Stoffen aus Lösungsmitteln, Gefäßen und aus der Atmosphäre zu kontaminieren, 3) mit der Trennung der interessierenden CBs von Verbindungen, die bei der analytischen Bestimmung mit GC-ECD stören. Wir haben uns längere Zeit bemüht, die oben erwähnten Probleme zu bewältigen. Verbesserungen wurden bei den Probennahmen (größere Volumina mit Schöpfer, in situ Extraktion), der Probenaufarbeitung (HPLC), GC-Trennung (Multidimensionale GC-ECD) sowie bei der Reinigung und Aufbewahrung der benutzten Lösungsmittel erzielt. Die Techniken wurden im Atlantik, im Mittelmeer, in der Nord- und Ostsee angewandt. Hier lagen die Konzentrationen einzelner Chlorobiphenyle in Lösung im allgemeinen im Bereich von 〈0.01 bis 10 pg/l. Die Konzentrationen im partikulären Material sind im offenen Meer erheblich geringer. Kongeneren mit geringem Chlorierungsgrad sind in Lösung bedeutender als in Partikeln. Mit einer Musteranalyse konnten die Beiträge von Flüssen (Elbe) und industrielle Aktivitäten auf See (Ekofisk, Piper Alpha) qualitativ bestimmt werden. Die CBs mit den größten toxischen Werten (77, 126, 169, 118, 105, 156) werden in unseren Untersuchungen besonders berücksichtigt. Ihre Werte im Wasser, in Partikeln und in verschiedenen Organismen einer Nahrungskette in der Ostsee liegen vor. Das CB-105 hat bezüglich der am höchsten toxischen Kongeneren (77, 126, 169) eine geringere Toxizität, durch die relativ hohen Konzentrationen trägt dieses Kongener aber am meisten zu den berechneten TCDD-Äquivalenten bei. Mikrobiologisch einwandfrei, aber wegen eutrophierungsbedingter starker Reduzierung der Sichttiefe zu beanstanden waren alle Badestellen der Boddenküste. Die seit Jahren an den Mündungen abwasserbelasteter Vorfluter bestehenden Badeverbote blieben aufrechterhalten, da abwassertechnisch noch keine wesentliche Verbesserung der Situation zu verzeichnen ist. Betroffen sind die Strandabschnitte: Boltenhagen: 200 m rechts, 200 m links des Einlaufens des Klützer Baches Zierow: 50 m rechts, 50 m links des Einlaufens des Zierower Grabens Rerik: Der Salzhaffstrand an der Ortslage Rerik Kühlungsborn: 200 m rechts, 200 m links des Einlaufs des Fulgenbachs; 200 m rechts, 200 m links der Buhne am Hansahaus Tromper Wiek: In Höhe Drewoldke 250 m rechts, 250 m links der Mündung des Grabens 85 Glowe: 400 m rechts, 400 m links der Einmündung des Kläranlagenablaufs Prorer Wiek: Von Saßnitz bis zum Fährhafen Mukran Binz: 100 m am Hauptstrand am Ablauf des Schmachter Sees Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden: Gesamter Bodden Wieker Bodden: Alle Badestrände Strelasund: Bei Devin Zingst-Darßer Boddenkette: Gesamte Ribnitzer See und Stadgebiet Barth. Vorgesehen sind Sanierungsmaßnahmen, die im wesentlichen den Bau von Kläranlagen beinhalten.SummaryThe main difficulties when analysing chlorinated biphenyls in sea water arise: 1) because of their extremely low concentrations in the presence of many other organic compounds which occur in concentrations 106 to 108 higher. 2) because of the risk of contaminating samples with substances from solvents, containers and the atmosphere. 3) because of the fact that CBs are separated from compounds that interfere during analysis with GC-ECD. We have tried for many years to overcome these problems. Improvements have been made in sampling (greater volumes using dippers, in situ extraction), sample processing (HPLC), GC separation (multidimensional GC-ECD) as well as in the cleaning and storing of used solvents. The techniques have been used in the Atlantic, the Meditteranean, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Generally, concentrations of individual chlorinated biphenyls in solution lay between 〈0.01 to 10 pg/l. Concentrations in particulate matter in the open sea are considerably smaller. Congeners with a low degree of chlorination are more important in solution than in particles. Inputs from rivers (Elbe) and industrial activities at sea (Ekofisk, Piper Alpha) were determined qualitatively in a sample analysis. Special attention is paid in our investigations to the CBs with the greatest toxic values (77, 126, 169, 118, 105, 156). Their values are known for water, particles and different organisms in a food chain in the Baltic Sea. With regard to the most toxic congeners (77, 126, 169), CB-105 has a lower toxicity, but because of its relatively high concentrations, this congener contributes most to the calculated TCDD equivalents. All bathing sites along the Bodden coast were microbiologically in order, but fault was found with them because of the cloudiness caused by eutrophication. The long-standing bans in force on swimming at the mouths of receiving waters have been maintained as no great improvement of the situation has been found. The affected stretches of beach are: Boltenhagen:: 200 m left and right of the mouth of Klützer Bach Zierow: 50 m left and right of the mouth of Zierower Graben Rerik: the Salzhaff beach in Rerik Kühlungsborn: 200 m left and right of the mouth of the Fulgenbach; 200 m left and right of the Hansahaus groin. Tromper Wiek: at Drewoldke, 250 left and right of the mounth of Graben 85 Glowe: 400 m left and right of the entrance of the sewage works drain Prorer Wiek: from Saßnitz to Mukran ferry terminal Binz: 100 m of the main beach along the Schmachter See Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden: the whole Bodden Wieker Bodden: all bathing sites Strelasund: by Devin Zingst-Darßer Boodenkette: all of the Ribnitzer See and the town of Barth Sewage treatment plants are planned as part of clean-up measures. ©1991 Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut
    Print ISSN: 1616-7341
    Electronic ISSN: 1616-7228
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1991-09-01
    Print ISSN: 0012-0308
    Electronic ISSN: 1616-7228
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Springer
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1983-12-01
    Print ISSN: 0262-6667
    Electronic ISSN: 2150-3435
    Topics: Geography
    Published by Informa UK Limited
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2234
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das polarisierte Absorptionsspektrum des Chromations wurde bei den Temperaturen des flüssigen Wasserstoffs und Heliums gemessen. Für Chromat in K2SO4 werden zwei erlaubte Absorptionsbanden 1 A 1→1 T 2 gefunden. Die erste Bande ist dreifach aufgespalten, ihre 0-0 Linien liegen bei 26316 cm−1, 26441 cm−1 und 26610 cm−1. Von den 0-0 Linien ausgehend zeigt sich eine einfache Zunahme der Werte um 783 cm−1. Der zweite Übergang ist nahezu strukturlos, er liegt zwischen 34000 cm−1 und 44000 cm−1. Die beiden Banden werden überwiegend t 1→2e bzw. 3t 2→2e zugeordnet. VO 4 ≡ in Na3PO4 · 12H2O zeigt bei der Temperatur des flüssigen Stickstoffs eine breite strukturlose Bande zwischen 30 000 und 40 000 cm−1.
    Abstract: Résumé Le spectre d'absorption en lumière polarisée de l'ion chromate a été mesuré aux températures de l'hydrogène et de l'hélium liquide. Pour le chromate dissous dans K2SO4 on met en évidence deux bandes d'absorption électronique de transition orbitale permise 1 A 1→1 T 2. La première bande est séparée en trois sous niveaux dont les raies 0-0 se trouvent à 26,316 cm−1, 26,441 cm−1 et 26,610 cm−1. A partir des raies 0-0 on distingue une période de 783 cm−1. La seconde bande est presque non structurée et s'étend de 34,000 cm−1 à 44,000 cm−1. Les deux bandes sont décrites comme t 1→2e et 3t 2→2e respectivement. VO 4 ≡ dissous dans Na3PO4 · 12H2O révèle à la température de l'azote liquide une large bande sans structure entre 30,000 et 40,000 cm−1.
    Notes: Abstract The polarized absorption spectrum of the chromate ion has been measured at liquid hydrogen and helium temperatures. With chromate dissolved in K2SO4 evidence is found for two orbitally allowed 1 A 1→1 T 2 electronic absorption bands. The first band is split into three sublevels with the 0-0 lines located at 26,316 cm−1, 26,441 cm−1 and 26,610 cm−1. Built upon the 0-0 lines is seen a simple progression in quanta of 783 cm−1. The second transition is nearly featureless, and is found at 34,000 cm−1 to 44,000 cm−1. The two bands are assigned as primarily t 1→2e and as 3t 2→2e respectively. VO 4 ≡ dissolved in Na3PO4 · 12H2O showed at liquid nitrogen temperature a broad featureless band found between 30,000 and 40,000 cm−1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The new sediment trap has a 0.5 m2 aperture, a funnel slope of 34° and is capable of collecting 21 samples at programmed intervals (1 min–1 year) during deployment in the deep ocean. The trap has been designed to allow reliable data on trace inorganic and organic components (such as trace elements, n-alkanes, PCBs, PAHs, amino/fatty acids) in addition to the standard biogeochemical variables in the collected particles. Due to the exclusive use of synthetic (such as fiberglass, PVC, PTFE, or POM-Delrin®) and highly resistant metallic materials contamination problems have been eliminated for these species. Blank values determined in several tests in the open ocean were as low as 1% or even less of the amounts present in trap material, even at low particulate loadings. Another major aim was the elimination of loss of dissolved components from the sample cups into seawater. Microbial and chemical processes modify the collected particles, thereby mobilizing originally particulate species into solution. It is thus essential to avoid greater losses of dissolved species through diffusion into the surrounding seawater after collection. This was achieved by means of an especially designed sealing mechanism. Tests with tracer substances during field studies proved that losses of dissolved components from supernatants during one year of deployment are as low as 10%. Additionally, the relationship between flow characteristics around the traps and their excursions from the vertical position in a bottom-tethered array was studied during a one-year deployment in the North Atlantic. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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