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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 216 (1967), S. 362-363 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Debye-Scherrer X-ray photographs were taken of at least two samples from different parts of each specimen using a 114-6 mm diam. camera. The exposure time was two hours using filtered chromium radiation, at a tube voltage of 30 kV and a tube current of 10 m.amp. For several of the specimens, it was ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 212 (1966), S. 248-248 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SINCE %-iron carbide (Hagg carbide) was first prepared1, attempts have been made to determine the lattice parameters of its unit cell. Jack2 attempted to index a powder pattern of the carbide Fe20C9 on the basis of a complex orthorhombic structure with the lattice parameters a = 9-061 A, b = 15-694 ...
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effects of the interaction of the sensor point spread function with a heterogeneous scene consisting of elements giving rise to different spectral radiant intensities cause errors in multitemporal signatures due to fractional pixel repositioning errors. In the case of a heterogeneous scene, the repositioning accuracy between acquisitions could affect the radiometric output in any band and could affect the spectral distribution of radiance between bands. Error caused by within-band and between-band variations in radiance with time could be compounded by resampling along and between scan lines during processing. The magnitude of both error sources depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the scene.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-174587 , NAS 1.26:174587 , E84-10035
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: There is a dependence of TM output (proportional to scene radiance in a manner which will be discussed) upon season, upon cover type and upon view angle. The existence of a significant systematic variation across uniform scenes in p-type (radiometrically and geometrically pre-processed) data is demonstrated. Present pre-processing does remove the effects and the problem must be addressed because the effects are large. While this is in no way attributable to any shortcomings in the thematic mapper, it is an effect which is sufficiently important to warrant more study, with a view to developing suitable pre-processing correction algorithms.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:175387 , NASA-CR-175387 , E84-10095
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: Radiance recorded by any remote sensing instrument will contain noise which will consist of both systematic and random variations. Systematic variations may be due to sun-target-sensor geometry, atmospheric conditions, and the interaction of the spectral characteristics of the sensor with those of upwelling radiance. Random variations in the data may be caused by variations in the nature and in the heterogeneity of the ground cover, by variations in atmospheric transmission, and by the interaction of these variations with the sensing device. It is important to be aware of the extent of random and systematic errors in recorded radiance data across ostensibly uniform ground areas in order to assess the impact on quantative image analysis procedures for both the single date and the multidate cases. It is the intention here to examine the systematic and the random variations in digital radiance data recorded in each band by the thematic mapper over crop areas which are ostensibly uniform and which are free from visible cloud.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E86-10018 , NASA-CR-176425 , NAS 1.26:176425
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: When comparing the recorded radiance data obtained on a given date by means of different sensors or on different dates using the same sensor, the values in question must be referred to some common datum. It is presently noted that more data are required for remote sensing instruments, and that these should consist of gain, offset, spectral response and point spread function for each bandpass. Such information will be the bases for studies of sensor intercalibration procedure.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Applied Optics (ISSN 0003-6935); 24; 2292-229
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Studies are reported of the systematic and random variations in digital radiance data obtained by the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers over an agricultural crop area which was apparently uniform and cloud-free. Systematic variations appeared to be time-dependent and bandpass-dependent. The predominant effect seemed to be random variations, which appeared to be in keeping with those expected from prior investigations. It is suggested that uncorrected variations will provide a limitation on the nonphotointerpretative analysis of images.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0099-1112); 51; 1427-143
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: In this paper, factors controlling the radiance incident on a remote-sensing device and the interaction of the sensor with upwelling radiance are considered. Attention is also given to systematic and random radiance variations across an image: while the former may be corrected for (to an extent) the latter may not, so that it is necessary to be aware of the impact of random variations on target identification, discrimination and quantification. Both the optical reflective and the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum are considered. Equations are presented to concisely illustrate the processes involved.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: International Journal of Remote Sensing (ISSN 0143-1161); 6; 3-27
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Although considerable progress has been made in applying remote sensing technology to vegetation monitoring, considerable problems still exist in the improvement of techniques for crop type discrimination, stress detection on a large scale, and stress quantification. In this paper, some of the problems remaining in the operational use of remote sensing technology for vegetation stress detection are discussed, and directions in which some of these problems might be solved are proposed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
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  • 10
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: There is a need to calibrate satellite data obtained at large polar (i.e., off-nadir) view angles for effects caused by scanner geometry and by the atmosphere. If such effects are not corrected for, then recorded radiance data will contain systematic and random errors which will make accurate target identification and quantification difficult. Adequate calibration of digital radiance data requires both an inductive analysis of digital satellite images and a deductive analysis based upon a priori simulation studies. The inputs to a simulation model (ground reflectance, atmospheric transmission and bandscatter) and their variability are dependent upon (for example) sun-target-sensor geometry. There is a major need to make accurate ground reflectance measurements to provide calibration information on the anisotropy of ground reflectance. There is also a need to assess atmospheric transmission and backscatter from the image itself. A potential simple, inexpensive method for making ground reflectance measurements in the above context is discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
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