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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: In the robotic search for life on Mars, different proposed missions will analyze the chemical and biological signatures of life using different platforms. The analysis of samples via analytical instrumentation on the surface of Mars has thus far only been attempted by the two Viking missions. Robotic arms scooped relogith material into a pyrolysis oven attached to a GC/MS. No trace of organic material was found on any of the two different samples at either of the two different landing sites. This null result puts an upper limit on the amount of organics that might be present in Martian soil/rocks, although the level of detection for each individual molecular species is still debated. Determining the absolute limit of detection for each analytical instrument is essential so that null results can be understood. This includes investigating the trade off of using pyrolysis versus liquid solvent extraction to release organic materials (in terms of extraction efficiencies and the complexity of the sample extraction process.) Extraction of organics from field samples can be accomplished by a variety of methods such utilizing various solvents including HCl, pure water, supercritical fluid and Soxhelt extraction. Utilizing 6N HCl is one of the most commonly used method and frequently utilized for extraction of organics from meteorites but it is probably infeasible for robotic exploration due to difficulty of storage and transport. Extraction utilizing H2O is promising, but it could be less efficient than 6N HCl. Both supercritical fluid and Soxhelt extraction methods require bulky hardware and require complex steps, inappropriate for inclusion on rover spacecraft. This investigation reports the efficiencies of pyrolysis and solvent extraction methods for amino acids for different terrestrial samples. The samples studied here, initially created in aqueous environments, are sedimentary in nature. These particular samples were chosen because they possibly represent one of the best terrestrial analogs of Mars and they represent one of the absolute best case scenarios for finding organic molecules on the Martian surface.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Type: International Symposium on Optical Memory (ISOM '01); Taipei, Taiwan; Republic of China
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: A new holographic memory (HM) system will be presented.
    Type: International Symposium on Optical Memory (ISOM '01); Taipei, Taiwan; Republic of China
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: In this work we describe an analytical method for determining the presence of organic compounds in rocks, limestone, and other composite materials. Our preliminary laboratory experiments on different rocks/limestone show that the organic component in mineralogical matrices is a minor phase on order of hundreds of ppm and can be better detected using high precision liquid chromatography (HPLC). The matrix, which is the major phase, plays an important role in embedding and protecting the organic molecules from the harsh Martian environment. Some rocks bear significant amounts of amino acids therefore, it is possible to identify these phases using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) by crystallizing the organic. The method of detection/analysis of organics, in particular amino acids, that have been associated with life will be shown in the next section.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: The astrobiological search for life, both extinct and extant, on other solar system bodies will take place via several planned lander missions to Mars, Europa and Titan. The detection and identification of organic molecules that have been associated with life is a major technical achievement. Terrestrial life utilizes organic molecules, such as amino acids, as its basic building block. Detection of an entometeric excess of L over D forms of amino acids would be a powerful sign that life had existed on Mars at one time.
    Type: 34th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; Houston, TX; United States
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0143-991X
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The application of robotics in manufacturing industry is increasingly spreading to other fields such as service, security and medical, and more recently into orthopedic surgery. Most research projects to date have concentrated on the lighter side of non-invasive surgery, camera, laser guidance, light cutting and milling through bone. Just as in industrial production and processing applications, the choice of robot and its accompanying control and programming system is absolutely paramount. This simple fact has been justified in recent research dealing with the heavier forms of fracture repositioning robotics in accident surgery. This paper discusses the development of the complete system including robot, end-effector and sensors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Applied crystallography online 29 (1996), S. 493-494 
    ISSN: 1600-5767
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: This work describes a detector-fixed method in which X-ray photons are collected on different points of the sensitive area of the detector without movement of the detector and which is suitable for measuring a single-crystal orientation using (ω, φ) rotations. This method was used to determine the orientation of a silicon wafer whose (100) plane makes a small angle (misorientation angle) with the surface. ω scans of the 400 reflection were measured as a function of φwhile χ and 2θ were fixed at 0 and 69°, respectively.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: The astrobiological search for life, both extinct and extant, on other solar system bodies will take place via several planned lander missions to Mars Europa and Titan. The detection and identification of organic molecules that have been associated with life is a major technical challenge. Terrestrial life utilizes organic molecules, such as amino acids, as its basic building block. Amino acids can be synthesized by natural processes as is demonstrated by their detection in meteoritic material. In this process, the organic molecules are produced roughly in a even mixture of D and L forms. Biological process, however, can utilize almost uniquely one form or the other. In terrestrial biology, only the L-amino acids is common in biological processes. If signature of life existed elsewhere in the D form it then be concluded that life had evolutionary beginning on that body. Detection of an enantiomeric excess of L over D would also be a powerful sign that life had existed on that body at one time.
    Keywords: Exobiology
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV; LPI-Contrib-1156
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-09-20
    Description: The proper work of vertical wind turbine Savonius typed may be negatively influenced by very high wind speed. Usually the wind turbine speed is limited by means of a brake. The turbine speed is limited, but the spindle of the turbine is still subject of increased torque. The paper proposes a new, innovative technical solution that does not counteract increasing the turbine speed above a limit value, but prevents it. The new concept is based on dividing the blade of the turbine into several parallel vertical strips, properly displayed, as to form the shape of a conventional blade. Each strip can rotate against its own vertical axis, to change its orientation in vertical plane. This brings the benefit that when the turbine speed tends to overcome a certain value (dangerous for the turbine) the strips orientation changes, and the surface of the blade becomes a non-continuous one. The area of the blade that faces to the wind reduces, and prevents increasing the turbine speed. When w...
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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