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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-05-27
    Description: European employees are increasingly likely to work in cases of illness (sickness presenteeism, SP). Past studies found inconsistent evidence for the assumption that temporary workers decide to avoid taking sick leave due to job insecurity. A new measure to identify decision-based determinants of SP is presenteeism propensity (PP), which is the number of days worked while ill in relation to the sum of days worked while ill and days taken sickness absence. We investigated the link between employment contract and PP using cross-sectional data from 20,240 employees participating in the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey. Workers were grouped by type and duration of employment contract. The link between contract and PP was estimated using a multilevel Poisson model adjusted for socio-demographical, occupational and health-related covariates. We found that European employees worked 39% of the days they were ill. In contrast to previous studies, temporary workers were significantly more likely to decide for presenteeism than permanent workers were, especially when the contract was limited to less than 1 year. Controlling for perceived job insecurity did just marginally attenuate this association. Presenteeism was also more common among young and middle-aged workers; however, we did not find a significant interaction between contract and age affecting presenteeism. In conclusion, the employment contract is an important determinant of presenteeism. Our results give reason to believe that temporary workers show increased attendance behavior independent of job insecurity, because they are less likely to have access to social protection in case of illness.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-03-26
    Electronic ISSN: 1932-6203
    Topics: Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: Young workers are in particular need of occupational safety and health (OSH) services, but it is unclear whether they have the necessary access to such services. We compared young with older workers in terms of the access to and awareness of OSH services, and examined if differences in employment conditions accounted for age-differences. We used survey data from Italy (INSuLA 1, 2014), with a sample of 8000 employed men and women aged 19 to 65 years, including 732 young workers aged under 30 years. Six questions measured access to services, and five questions assessed awareness of different OSH issues. Several employment conditions were included. Analyses revealed that young workers had less access and a lower awareness of OSH issues compared with older workers. For instance, odds ratios (OR) suggest that young workers had a 1.44 times higher likelihood [95%—confidence interval 1.21–1.70] of having no access to an occupational physician, and were more likely (2.22 [1.39–3.38]) to be unaware of legal OSH frameworks. Adjustment for selected employment conditions (company size, temporary contract) substantially reduced OR’s, indicating that these conditions contribute to differences between older and younger workers. We conclude that OSH management should pay particular attention to young workers in general and, to young workers in precarious employment, and working in small companies in particular.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies.RESULTS: We identified ten published cohort studies and included unpublished individual-participant data from 18 studies. In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1–5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I〈sup〉2〈/sup〉=45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13–2.01), a weaker association in Europe (1.11, 95% CI 1.00–1.22), and no association in North America (0.97, 95% CI 0.70–1.34) or Australia (0.95, 95% CI 0.70–1.29). Differences by other characteristics were small. CONCLUSIONS: This observational evidence suggests a moderate association between long working hours and onset of depressive symptoms in Asia and a small association in Europe.〈/p〉
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; depression ; depressive symptom ; mental health ; meta-analysis ; overtime ; participant data ; psychological distress ; systematic review ; working hour ; working life ; working time
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: Beschäftigte in Deutschland sollen künftig bis 67 arbeiten. Doch bereits in der Altersgruppe zwischen 45 und 65 werden viele Menschen durch die Belastungen im Job krank, zeigt die internationale Forschung.Die gute Nachricht für ältere Beschäftigte ist: Wer einen dauerhaften Job hat, ist im Schnitt gesünder als ein langzeitarbeitsloser Mensch. Doch zugleich gibt es eine ausgeprägte Krankheitslast in der erwerbstätigen Bevölkerung. Und die wächst insbesondere im höheren Lebensalter. So erleiden beispielsweise Männer zwischen 50 bis 59 Jahren dreimal häufiger einen Herzinfarkt als in der Altersgruppe von 40 bis 49.Welchen Anteil an diesen Risiken haben Belastungen aus dem Arbeitsleben oder welcher Anteil ergibt sich aus 'normalen' Alterseffekten? Dieser Frage ist die vorliegende Untersuchung nachgegangen. Sie kommt in der Zusammenschau zahlreicher internationaler Studien zu dem Schluss, dass bestimmte Arbeitsbelastungen durchgehend signifikante Effekte auf die Häufigkeit von Erkrankungen bei älteren Beschäftigten und die Wahrscheinlichkeit einer Frühverrentung haben. Dies gilt sowohl für körperliche Belastungen, wie Lärm oder schwere körperliche Arbeit, für langjährige Schichtarbeit mit Nachtarbeit, sowie für psychosoziale Belastungen, die in Form von Dauerstress von der neueren Forschung identifiziert worden sind. Sie erhöhen das Risiko stressassoziierter Krankheiten wie Herzinfarkt oder Depression bei den Betroffenen deutlich. Rein rechnerisch kann etwa ein Fünftel dieser Krankheitslast den Belastungen des Arbeitslebens zugerechnet werden.Entsprechende Maßnahmen betrieblicher und überbetrieblicher Gesundheitsförderung, die bei der Verbesserung von Arbeitsbedingungen ansetzen, sind daher geeignet, den Erkrankungsrisiken älterer Beschäftigter vorzubeugen. Hier bleibt allerdings noch viel zu tun. Zunächst ist es wichtig, sich der besonderen Gefährdung gerade älterer Beschäftigter bewusst zu werden und die arbeitsbedingten Quellen im jeweiligen Betrieb zu erkennen. Aufbauen auf eine solche Analyse der Risiken können dann gezielte Maßnahmen ergriffen werden. Hierzu zählt etwa die Gestaltung altersgerechter Arbeitsabläufe, wie der Flexibilisierung von Arbeitsaufgaben oder der Begrenzung der Zeit in besonders belastenden Arbeitsumständen. Wichtig ist es zudem ältere Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter nicht von betrieblichen Entwicklungen abzukoppeln, sondern Möglichkeiten der Weiterbildung produktiv zu nutzen.
    Keywords: ddc:610
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: Background: Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) is an established conceptualisation of work stress. Although a validated effort-reward questionnaire is available for public use, many epidemiological studies adopt shortened scales and proxy measures. To examine the agreement between different abbreviated measures and the original instrument, we compared different versions of the effort-reward scales available in 15 European cohort studies participating in the IPD-Work (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium. Methods: Five of the 15 studies provide information on the original (‘complete’) scales measuring ‘effort’ and ‘reward’, whereas the 10 remaining studies used ‘partial’ scales. To compare different versions of the ERI scales, we analyse individual-level data from 31,790 participants from the five studies with complete scales. Results: Pearson’s correlation between partial and complete scales was very high in case of ‘effort’ (where 2 out of 3 items were used) and very high or high in case of ‘reward’, if at least 4 items (out of 7) were included. Reward scales composed of 3 items revealed good to satisfactory agreement, and in one case, a reward scale consisting of 2 items only demonstrated a modest, but still acceptable degree of agreement. Sensitivity and specificity of a composite measure, the ratio of effort and reward, comparing partial versus complete scales ranged between 59–93 and 85–99 %, respectively. Complete and partial scales were strongly associated with poor self-rated health. Conclusion: Our results support the notion that short proxy measures or partial versions of the original scales can be used to assess effort-reward imbalance.
    Description: The final publication is available at www.springerlink.com: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-013-0855-z
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Effort-reward imbalance ; Work stress ; IPD-Work ; Abbreviated measures ; European cohort studies ; Stress ; Statistische Methode
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: Objective: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use.Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. Data sources: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. Review methods: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary: estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. Results: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95\% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and 〉=55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2\%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate.Conclusions Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.
    Description: This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitszeit ; Alkoholkonsum ; Statistische Methode
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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