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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Previous studies have shown that rheumatoid arthritis aggregates within families. However, no formal genetic analysis of rheumatoid arthritis in pedigrees together with other autoimmune diseases has been reported. We hypothesized that there are genetic factors in common in rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Results of odds-ratio regression and complex segregation analysis in a sample of 43 Caucasian pedigrees ascertained through a rheumatoid arthritis proband or matched control proband, revealed a very strong genetic influence on the occurrence of both rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. In an analysis of rheumatoid arthritis alone, only one inter-class measure, parent–sibling, resulted in positive evidence of aggregation. However, three inter-class measures (parent–sibling, sibling–offspring, and parent–offspring pairs) showed significant evidence of familial aggregation with odds-ratio regression analysis of rheumatoid arthritis together with all other autoimmune diseases. Segregation analysis of rheumatoid arthritis alone revealed that the mixed model, including both polygenic and major gene components, was the most parsimonious. Similarly, segregation analysis of rheumatoid arthritis together with other autoimmune diseases revealed that a mixed model fitted the data significantly better than either major gene or polygenic models. These results were consistent with a previous study which concluded that several genes, including one with a major effect, is responsible for rheumatoid arthritis in families. Our data showed that this conclusion also held when the phenotype was defined as rheumatoid arthritis and/or other autoimmune diseases, suggesting that several major autoimmune diseases result from pleiotropic effects of a single major gene on a polygenic background.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1520-4804
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The fluffy (fl) gene of Neurospora crassa is required for asexual sporulation and encodes an 88 kDa polypeptide containing a typical fungal Zn2Cys6 DNA-binding motif. Identification of genes regulated by fl will provide insight into how fungi regulate growth during morphogenesis. As a step towards identifying the target genes on which FL may act, we sought to define target sequences to which the FL protein binds. The DNA binding domain of FL was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and purified using glutathione-sepharose affinity chromatography. The DNA binding sites were selected and amplified by means of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated random-site selection method involving affinity bead-binding and gel mobility shift analysis. Sequencing and comparison of the selected clones suggested that FL binds to the motif 5′-CGG(N)9CCG-3′. A potential binding site was found in the promoter region of the eas (ccg-2) gene, which encodes a fungal hydrophobin. In vitro competitive binding assays revealed a preferred binding site for FL in the eas promoter, 5′-CGGAAGTTTC CTCCG-3′, which is located 1498 bp upstream of the eas translation initiation codon. In vivo experiments using a foreign DNA sequence tag also confirmed that this sequence resides in a region required for FL regulation. In addition, yeast one hybrid experiments demonstrated that the C-terminal portion of FL functions in transcriptional activation. Transcriptional profiling was used to identify additional potential targets for regulation by fl.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: assembly of type I collagen ; COOH-terminal propeptide ; pepsin-resistant heterotrimers ; interspecies collagen molecule ; thermal stability ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Procollagen (Type I) contains a noncollagenous COOH-terminal propeptide (C-propeptide) hypothesized to be important in directing chain association and alignment during assembly. We previously expressed human pro-α2(I) cDNA in rat liver epithelial cells, W8, that produce only pro-α1(I) trimer collagen (Lim et al. [1994] MatrixBiol. 14: 21-30). In the resulting cell lines, α2(I) assembled with α1(I) forming heterotrimers. Using this cell system, we investigated the importance of the COOH-terminal propeptide sequence of the pro-α2(I) chain for normal assembly of type I collagen. Full-length human pro-α2(I) cDNA was cloned into expression vectors with a premature stop signal eliminating the final 10 amino acids. No triple-helical molecules containing α2(I) were detected in transfected W8 cells, although pro-α2(I) mRNA was detected. Additional protein analysis demonstrated that these cells synthesize small amounts of truncated pro-α2(I) chains detected by immunoprecipitation with a pro-α2(I) antibody. In addition, since the human-rat collagen was less thermostable than normal intraspecies collagen, wild-type and C-terminal truncated mouse cDNAs were expressed in mouse D2 cells, which produced only type I trimers. Results from both systems were consistent, suggesting that the last 10 amino acid residues of the pro-α2(I) chain are important for formation of stable type I collagen. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:216-232, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: assembly of type I collagen ; COOH-terminal propeptide ; pesin-resistant heterotrimers ; disulfide bonds ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Collagen biosynthesis is a complex process that begins with the association of three procollagen chains. A series of conserved intra- and interchain disulfide bonds in the carboxyl-terminal region of the procollagen chains, or C-propeptide, has been hypothesized to play an important role in the nucleation and alignment of the chains. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the ability of normal and cysteine-mutated pro-α2(I) chains to assemble into type I collagen heterotrimers when expressed in a cell line (D2) that produces only endogenous pro-α1(I). Pro-α2(I) chains containing single or double cysteine mutations that disrupted individual intra- or interchain disulfide bonds were able to form pepsin resistant type I collagen with pro-α1(I), indicating that individual disulfide bonds were not critical for assembly of the pro-α2(I) chain with pro-α1(I). Pro-α2(I) chains containing a triple cysteine mutation that disrupted both intrachain disulfide bonds were not able to form pepsin resistant type I collagen with pro-α1(I). Therefore, disruption of both pro-α2(I) intrachain disulfide bonds prevented the production and secretion of type I collagen heterotrimers. Although none of the individual disulfide bonds is essential for assembly of the procollagen chains, the presence of at least one intrachain disulfide bond may be necessary as a structural requirement for chain association or to stabilize the protein to prevent intracellular degradation. J.Cell. Biochem. 71:233-242, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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