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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN38702 , American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting; 22-26 Jan. 2017; Seattle, WA; United States
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Two sprite-producing thunderstorms were observed on 8 and 25 June 2012 in northeastern Colorado by a combination of low-light cameras, a lightning mapping array, polarimetric and Doppler radars, the National Lightning Detection Network, and charge moment change measurements. The 8 June event evolved from a tornadic hailstorm to a larger multicellular system that produced 21 observed positive sprites in 2 h. The majority of sprites occurred during a lull in convective strength, as measured by total flash rate, flash energy, and radar echo volume. Mean flash area spiked multiple times during this period; however, total flash rates still exceeded 60 min(sup 1), and portions of the storm featured a complex anomalous charge structure, with midlevel positive charge near 20degC. The storm produced predominantly positive cloud-to-ground lightning. All sprite-parent flashes occurred on the northeastern flank of the storm, where strong westerly upper level flow was consistent with advection of charged precipitation away from convection, providing a pathway for stratiform lightning. The 25 June event was another multicellular hailstorm with an anomalous charge structure that produced 26 positive sprites in less than 1 h. The sprites again occurred during a convective lull, with relatively weaker reflectivity and lower total flash rate but relatively larger mean flash area. However, all sprite parents occurred in or near convection and tapped charge layers in adjacent anvil cloud. The results demonstrate the sprite production by convective ground strokes in anomalously charged storms and also indicate that sprite production and convective vigor are inversely related in mature storms.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN35329 , Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheres (ISSN 2169-897X); 121; 16; 9675–9695
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology; Computer Programming and Software; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN26459 , Conference on Radar Meteorology; 14-18 Sep. 2015; Norman, OK; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The primary scientific goals of DC3 involved improving our understanding of the chemical impacts of thunderstorms and their anvils. However, the Colorado domain provided opportunities to study other interesting phenomena, including the potential impacts of smoke ingestion on convection and thunderstorms, electrification processes in smoke plumes and pyrocumulonimbus clouds, and the production of sprites by unconventional thunderstorm.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3) Science Team Meeting; 25-28 Feb. 2013; Boulder, CO; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN19968 , Annual American Meteorological Society Conference; 3-8 Jan. 2015; Phoenix, AZ; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN46231 , Conference on Radar Meteorology; 28 Aug. - 1 Sep. 2017; Chicago, IL; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Deep convective clouds over land tend to have larger radar echo (bigger rain drops), larger microwave scattering (heavier riming), and more lightning flash rate (frequent ice-to-ice collision).
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN54739 , European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2018; 8-13 Apr. 2018; Vienna; Austria
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: In order to support research on optimal data assimilation methods for the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS), launching in 2016, work has been ongoing to produce a highresolution merged wind dataset for the Dynamics of the Madden Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign, which took place during late 2011/early 2012. The winds are produced by assimilating DYNAMO observations into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) threedimensional variational (3DVAR) system. Data sources from the DYNAMO campaign include the upperair sounding network, radial velocities from the radar network, vector winds from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and Oceansat2 Scatterometer (OSCAT) satellite instruments, the NOAA High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), and several others. In order the prep them for 3DVAR, significant additional quality control work is being done for the currently available TOGA and SMARTR radar datasets, including automatically dealiasing radial velocities and correcting for intermittent TOGA antenna azimuth angle errors. The assimilated winds are being made available as model output fields from WRF on two separate grids with different horizontal resolutions a 3km grid focusing on the main DYNAMO quadrilateral (i.e., Gan Island, the R/V Revelle, the R/V Mirai, and Diego Garcia), and a 1km grid focusing on the Revelle. The wind dataset is focused on three separate approximately 2week periods during the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) onsets that occurred in October, November, and December 2011. Work is ongoing to convert the 10m surface winds from these model fields to simulated CYGNSS observations using the CYGNSS EndToEnd Simulator (E2ES), and these simulated satellite observations are being compared to radar observations of DYNAMO precipitation systems to document the anticipated ability of CYGNSS to provide information on the relationships between surface winds and oceanic precipitation at the mesoscale level. This research will improve our understanding of the future utility of CYGNSS for documenting key MJO processes.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: M14-3970 , American Meteorological Society (AMS) Annual Meeting; 4-8 Jan. 2015; Phoenix, AZ; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: The electrification (or lack thereof) of pyrocumulus clouds is examined for several different wildfires that occurred during 20122013. For example, pyrocumulus clouds above three Colorado wildfires (Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon; all occurred during summer 2012) electrified and produced small intracloud discharges whenever the smoke plumes grew to high altitudes (over 10 km above mean sea level, or MSL). This occurred during periods of rapid wildfire growth, as indicated by the shortwave infrared channel on a geostationary satellite, as well as by incident reports. In the Hewlett Gulch case, the fire growth led to increased updrafts within the plume, as inferred by multipleDoppler radar syntheses, which led to the vertical development and subsequent electrification a life cycle as short as 30 minutes. The lightning, detected by a threedimensional lightning mapping network, was favored in highaltitude regions (~10 km MSL) containing modest reflectivities (25 dBZ and lower), ~0 dB differential reflectivity, and reduced correlation coefficient (~0.60.7). This indicated the likely presence of ice particles (crystals and aggregates, possibly rimed) mixed with ash. Though neither multipleDoppler nor polarimetric observations were available during the electrification of the High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes, their NEXRAD observations showed reflectivity structures consistent with Hewlett Gulch. In addition, polarimetric and multipleDoppler scanning of unelectrified High Park plumes indicated only irregularly shaped ash, and not ice, was present (i.e., reflectivities 〈 25 dBZ, differential reflectivity 〉 5 dB, correlation 〈 0.4), and there was no broaching of the 10 km altitude. Based on these results, the electrification likely was caused by icebased processes that did not involve significant amounts of graupel. Results for pyrocumulus clouds above notable 2013 wildfires that also experienced rapid growth (e.g., Black Forest, Yarnell Hill, West Fork, Tres Lagunas, etc.) will be compared against the 2012 cases, with special emphasis on polarimetric NEXRAD and available lightning measurements, in order to better understand the physical processes responsible for pyrocumulus electrification.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: M13-2836 , 2013 American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting; 9-13 Dec. 2013; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Sprites are caused by luminous electrical breakdown of the upper atmosphere, and frequently occur over large mesoscale precipitation systems. Two spriteproducing storms (on 8 and 25 June) were observed in Colorado during the summer of 2012. Unlike most past studies of sprites, these storms were observed by a polarimetric radar the CSUCHILL facility which provided both PPI and RHI scans of the cases. Also available were multipleDoppler syntheses from CSUCHILL, local NEXRAD radars, and the CSUPawnee radar; as well as data from the Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA), high speed cameras, and other lightningdetection instrumentation. This unique dataset provided an unprecedented look at the detailed kinematic and microphysical structures of the thunderstorms as they produced sprites, including electrical alignment signatures in the immediate location of the charge layers neutralized by spriteparent positive cloudtoground lightning strokes. One of the spriteproducing cases (25 June) featured an anomalous charge structure and may serve as a model for how sprites can be produced over convection rather than the more typical stratiform regions. Also to be presented will be evidence for advection of charge into a common stratiform precipitation region (on 8 June), which was then tapped by lightning originating from multiple different convective cores to produce sprites. Depending on the outcome of the 2013 convective season, polarimetric data from additional storms that produce sprites and other transient luminous events (TLEs) may be presented.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: M13-2684 , American Meteorological Society (AMS) Conference on Radar Meterology; 16-20 Sep. 2013; Breckenridge, CO; United States
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