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  • 1
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    In:  Supplement to: Costa, Andrea; Petrenko, Anne; Guizien, Katell; Doglioli, Andrea (in review): On the calculation of betweenness centrality in marine connectivity studies using transfer probabilities. PLoS ONE
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Herein we highlight a methodological error we encountered in a literature paper concerning the application of graph theory to marine connectivity studies. We show the consequences of this error and propose the use of a metric for the node-to-node distance that solves the inconsistency at the base of it. Our argumentation is illustrated by the analysis of a literature data set. The toolbox contains: 1) Connectivity matrices used for the study 2) Scripts to reproduce the figures in the paper
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 924.0 kBytes
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0778
    Keywords: cell culture ; endosteal human osteoblasts ; maxilla ; mandible ; titanium ; biocompatibility ; alkaline phosphatase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Fragments of cancellous and cortical bone from human maxilla and mandible were cultured by the explant technique. Cells isolated by trypsinization of primary cultures were characterized as osteoblasts on the basis of intracellular alkaline phosphatase activity, the constituents of the extracellular matrix, and response to human parathormone (PTH). In culture, the osteoblasts often gave rise to superposed clumps of large cells whose cytoplasm contained endoplasmic reticulum, numerous mitochondria, vacuoles, and a dense network of intermediate filaments, often at the level of the plasma membrane. In the presence of vitamin C and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the osteoblasts produced an extracellular matrix composed of collagen type I and various non-collagenous proteins, including osteocalcin. Biochemical test results were comparable to those reported for osteoblasts of other origins (rat calvaria, human iliac crest), and namely elevated intracellular alkaline phosphatase activity and cAMP accumulation in response to stimulation by human PTH (1–34). Osteoblasts isolated in this manner were cultured in the presence of pure titanium disks to determine the effects of exposure to this metal. Electron microscopy revealed few significant differences in cell growth and specific enzyme activity compared to control osteoblasts grown on plastic dishes, reflecting the excellent biologic and biochemical relationship between the osteoblasts and pure titanium. This experimental system thus appears suitable for biocompatibility studies, and in particular, evaluation of dental implants.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-20
    Description: In this study, a high-resolution (∼2.5 km) numerical model was set up to investigate the fine-scale activity within the region of the Marquesas archipelago. This has never been performed before. The robustness of the model results is assessed by comparison with remote sensing and in situ observations. Our results highlight regions of warm waters leeward of the different islands with high eddy kinetic energy ( EKE ) on their sides. The analysis of energy conversion terms reveals contributions to EKE variability by wind, baroclinic and barotropic instabilities. The use of a geometry-based eddy detection algorithm reveals the generation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies in the wake of the largest islands, with both an inshore and offshore effect. Maximum eddy activity occurs in austral winter following the seasonality of both wind stress and EKE intensity. Most eddies have a radius between 20 and 30 km and are generally cyclonic rather than anticyclonic. Significant vertical velocities are observed in the proximity of the islands, associated with topographically-induced flow separation. Eddy trapping inshore waters are advected offshore in the wake of the islands. The overall influence of these fine-scale dynamics could explain the strong biological enhancement of the archipelago.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Abstract Vertical velocities can be estimated indirectly from in situ observations by theoretical frameworks like the ω‐equation. Direct measures of vertical exchanges are challenging due to their typically ephemeral spatiotemporal scales. In this study we address this problem with an adaptive sampling strategy coupling various biophysical instruments. We analyze the 3‐D organization of a cyclonic mesoscale structure finely sampled during the Observing Submesoscale Coupling At High Resolution cruise in the Ligurian Sea during fall 2015. The observations, acquired with a moving vessel profiler, highlight a subsurface low‐salinity layer (≃50 m), as well as rising isopycnals, generated by geostrophic cyclonic circulation, in the structure's center. Reconstructed 3‐D fields of density and horizontal velocities are used to estimate the vertical velocity field down to 250 m by applying the adiabatic QG ω‐equation, for the first time in this region. The vertical motions are characterized by multipolar patterns of downward and upward velocities on the edges of the structure and significantly smaller vertical velocities in its center. Both the 3‐D distribution of particles (size ≥100 μm), measured with a laser optical plankton counter, and the Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus abundances (cell per cubic meter) measured by flow cytometry are consistent with the 3‐D velocity field. In particular, a secondary vertical recirculation is identified that upwells particles (from 250 to 100 m) along isohalines to the structure's center. Besides demonstrating the effect of vertical patterns on biogeochemical distributions, this case study suggests to use particle matter as a tracer to assess physical dynamics.
    Print ISSN: 2169-9275
    Electronic ISSN: 2169-9291
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: The dynamics of the Sicily Channel and the southern Tyrrhenian Sea are highly influenced by the seasonal variability of the Mediterranean basin-wide circulation, by the interannual variability of the numerous mesoscale structures present in the Channel, and by the decadal variability of the adjacent Ionian Sea. In the present study, all these aspects are investigated using in-situ (Lagrangian drifter trajectories and Argo float profiles) and satellite data (Absolute Dynamic Topography, Sea Level Anomaly, Sea Surface Temperature, wind products) over the period from 1993 to 2018. The availability of long time series of data and high-resolution multi-sensor surface currents allow us to add new details on the circulation features and on their driving mechanisms and to detect new permanent eddies not yet described in literature. The structures prevailing in winter are mainly driven by wind, whereas those prevailing in summer are regulated by topographical forcing on surface currents. The strength of the surface structures located at the western entrance of the Ionian Sea and of the mesoscale activity along the northern Sicily coast is modulated by the large-scale internal variability. The vertical hydrological characteristics of these mesoscale eddies are delineated using the Argo float profiles inside these structures.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2006-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-09-01
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: Research cruises to quantify biogeochemical fluxes in the ocean require taking measurements at stations lasting at least several days. A popular experimental design is the quasi-Lagrangian drifter, often mounted with in situ incubations or sediment traps that follow the flow of water over time. After initial drifter deployment, the ship tracks the drifter for continuing measurements that are supposed to represent the same water environment. An outstanding question is how to best determine whether this is true. During the Oligotrophy to UlTra-oligotrophy PACific Experiment (OUTPACE) cruise, from 18 February to 3 April 2015 in the western tropical South Pacific, three separate stations of long duration (five days) over the upper 500m were conducted in this quasi-Lagrangian sampling scheme. Here we present physical data to provide context for these three stations and to assess whether the sampling strategy worked, i.e., that a single body of water was sampled. After analyzing tracer variability and local water circulation at each station, we identify water layers and times where the drifter risks encountering another body of water. While almost no realization of this sampling scheme will be truly Lagrangian, due to the presence of vertical shear, the depth-resolved observations during the three stations show most layers sampled sufficiently homogeneous physical environments during OUTPACE. By directly addressing the concerns raised by these quasi-Lagrangian sampling platforms, a protocol of best practices can begin to be formulated so that future research campaigns include the complementary datasets and analyses presented here to verify the appropriate use of the drifter platform.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: Fine-scale physical structures and ocean dynamics strongly influence and regulate biogeochemical and ecological processes. These processes are particularly challenging to describe and understand because of their ephemeral nature. The OSCAHR (Observing Submesoscale Coupling At High Resolution) campaign was conducted in fall 2015 in which a fine-scale structure (1–10km∕1–10 days) in the northwestern Mediterranean Ligurian subbasin was pre-identified using both satellite and numerical modeling data. Along the ship track, various variables were measured at the surface (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a and nutrient concentrations) with ADCP current velocity. We also deployed a new model of the CytoSense automated flow cytometer (AFCM) optimized for small and dim cells, for near real-time characterization of the surface phytoplankton community structure of surface waters with a spatial resolution of a few kilometers and an hourly temporal resolution. For the first time with this optimized version of the AFCM, we were able to fully resolve Prochlorococcus picocyanobacteria in addition to the easily distinguishable Synechococcus. The vertical physical dynamics and biogeochemical properties of the studied area were investigated by continuous high-resolution CTD profiles thanks to a moving vessel profiler (MVP) during the vessel underway associated with a high-resolution pumping system deployed during fixed stations allowing sampling of the water column at a fine resolution (below 1m). The observed fine-scale feature presented a cyclonic structure with a relatively cold core surrounded by warmer waters. Surface waters were totally depleted in nitrate and phosphate. In addition to the doming of the isopycnals by the cyclonic circulation, an intense wind event induced Ekman pumping. The upwelled subsurface cold nutrient-rich water fertilized surface waters and was marked by an increase in Chl a concentration. Prochlorococcus and pico- and nano-eukaryotes were more abundant in cold core waters, while Synechococcus dominated in warm boundary waters. Nanoeukaryotes were the main contributors (〉50%) in terms of pigment content (red fluorescence) and biomass. Biological observations based on the mean cell's red fluorescence recorded by AFCM combined with physical properties of surface waters suggest a distinct origin for two warm boundary waters. Finally, the application of a matrix growth population model based on high-frequency AFCM measurements in warm boundary surface waters provides estimates of in situ growth rate and apparent net primary production for Prochlorococcus (μ=0.21d−1, NPP=0.11 mgCm-3d-1) and Synechococcus (μ=0.72d−1, NPP=2.68 mgCm-3d-1), which corroborate their opposite surface distribution pattern. The innovative adaptive strategy applied during OSCAHR with a combination of several multidisciplinary and complementary approaches involving high-resolution in situ observations and sampling, remote-sensing and model simulations provided a deeper understanding of the marine biogeochemical dynamics through the first trophic levels.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-04-20
    Description: The patterns of the large-scale, meso- and submesoscale surface circulation on biogeochemical and biological distributions are examined in the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) in the context of the OUTPACE cruise (February–April 2015). Multi-disciplinary original in situ observations were achieved along a zonal transect through the WTSP and their analysis was coupled with satellite data. The use of Lagrangian diagnostics allows for the identification of water mass pathways, mesoscale structures, and submesoscale features such as fronts. In particular, we confirmed the existence of a global wind-driven southward circulation of surface waters in the entire WTSP, using a new high-resolution altimetry-derived product, validated by in situ drifters, that includes cyclogeostrophy and Ekman components with geostrophy. The mesoscale activity is shown to be responsible for counter-intuitive water mass trajectories in two subregions: (i) the Coral Sea, with surface exchanges between the North Vanuatu Jet and the North Caledonian Jet, and (ii) around 170∘W, with an eastward pathway, whereas a westward general direction dominates. Fronts and small-scale features, detected with finite-size Lyapunov exponents (FSLEs), are correlated with 25% of surface tracer gradients, which reveals the significance of such structures in the generation of submesoscale surface gradients. Additionally, two high-frequency sampling transects of biogeochemical parameters and microorganism abundances demonstrate the influence of fronts in controlling the spatial distribution of bacteria and phytoplankton, and as a consequence the microbial community structure. All circulation scales play an important role that has to be taken into account not only when analysing the data from OUTPACE but also, more generally, for understanding the global distribution of biogeochemical components.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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