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  • 1
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79 (10). pp. 2033-2058.
    Publication Date: 2016-09-07
    Description: In the autumn of 1996 the field component of an experiment designed to observe water mass transformation began in the Labrador Sea. Intense observations of ocean convection were taken in the following two winters. The purpose of the experiment was, by a combination of meteorological and oceanographic field observations, laboratory studies, theory, and modeling, to improve understanding of the convective process in the ocean and its representation in models. The dataset that has been gathered far exceeds previous efforts to observe the convective process anywhere in the ocean, both in its scope and range of techniques deployed. Combined with a comprehensive set of meteorological and air-sea flux measurements, it is giving unprecedented insights into the dynamics and thermodynamics of a closely coupled, semienclosed system known to have direct influence on the processes that control global climate.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 168 (1951), S. 114-115 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] In this communication we wish to report a simplified method for the preparation of concentrates of these compounds from hog adrenals, involving only four stages, and for the isolation of these compounds from such concentrates by a simple chromato-graphic technique, giving yields higher than those ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Mobility and structural analyses of bellows concept for lunar roving vehicle
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: NASA-CR-66098 , RSC-6720
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Boundary layer meteorology 1 (1971), S. 399-410 
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The signals from a wave probe, a buoy-mounted sensor at the water surface, and a three-component sonic anemometer were recorded during the passage of a discrete group of waves which were travelling against a light wind. Cross spectra between the wave signals and the pressure and sonic anemometer signals were obtained and are interpreted.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Body size ; Climate ; Geography ; Lynx ; Sexual dimorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Sexual size dimorphism might be influenced by environmental constraints on sexual selection or by intraspecific competition between males and females. We studied bobcats (Lynx rufus) in collections of museum specimens from western North America to examine these hypotheses. Structural body size was estimated from several measurements of the skull, ln-transformed and indexed through principal components analysis. Sexual dimorphism in body size was estimated from the difference in size index of males and females, and compared to geographic and climatic variables associated with biotic provinces (ecoregions). Of several climatic variables that were associated with bobcat body size, only seasonality of climate was associated with sexual dimorphism. Sexual size dimorphism, longitude, elevation, and seasonality were intercorrelated. As longitude decreased (moving inland from west-coastal ecoregions), sexual dimorphism decreased with the increased elevation and seasonality of continental climates of the Rocky Mountains. We suggest that increased seasonality and the need for fasting endurance by females may place constraints on the degree of sexual dimorphism in bobcats. Sexual dimorphism of body size and sexual size dimorphism of trophic structures (teeth) exhibited a strong positive association over geography, thus indirectly supporting the hypothesis that intrasexual competition for prey could account for the geographic variation in sexual size dimorphism. Thus, both environmental constraints on sexual selection of body size and intersexual competition were supported as possible explanations of the degree of sexual size dimorphism that occurs in populations of bobcats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 100 (1994), S. 190-195 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Allozymes ; Dispersal ; F-statistics ; Immigration ; Spermophilus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract From analyses of published data and a review of the literature, I studied indirect and direct measures of gene flow among populations of Columbian ground squirrels, Spermophilus columbianus. New analyses were used to examine an allozyme data set (seven polymorphic loci) that had been collected by Zammuto and Millar (1985a) from six populations of ground squirrels that were spread over 183 km. G-tests indicated significant variation in allele frequencies among populations, but F-statistics revealed relatively little population differentiation (average F ST=0.026). F ST values were used to estimate rates of gene flow indirectly and indicated fairly high rates of gene flow (average N e m=13.5). Recorded dispersal distances of individual ground squirrels were fairly short (most〈4 km, maximum recorded distance was 8.5 km), and the minimum distance between populations used to create the allozyme data set was about 25 km. Thus, direct dispersal among the populations in the allozyme data set was highly unlikely. Small genetically effective populations may have experienced high rates of migration over short distances (about 43% of adults in local populations were immigrants), however, resulting in homogeneous allele frequencies over the geographic range. This explanation provides an alternative to invoking gene flow in the recent past to explain discrepancies between dispersal distances in the field and homogenization of allele frequencies over large ranges, Mammalian species that have virtually complete dispersal of subadult males from the natal area might be expected to exhibit relatively high rates of gene flow, regardless of actual dispersal distances. Genetically effective populations may be much smaller than more extensive ecological populations and experience higher rates of gene flow.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 102 (1995), S. 44-51 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Demography ; Density ; Food resources ; Population regulation ; Spermophilus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The hypothesis that food resources regulate population size was tested in Columbian ground squirrels, Spermophilus columbianus, from 1981 to 1986 in southwestern Alberta, Canada. Two replicate populations received supplemental food resources from 1981 to 1983, and were subsequently monitored until 1986. Two reference (unmanipulated) populations were monitored throughout the 6 years. During the experiment, dramatic increases in population size of about 500% occurred. After supplementation, spring populations declined by about 20% per year, under conditions that produced stressful shortages of food (as evidenced by significant decreases in body mass of ground squirrels). The demographic process that contributed most to increasing and decreasing experimental populations was production of yearlings, through changes in reproductive success and survival of young. Changes in migration contributed secondarily to changes in population size, and changes in adult survival were least important. While similarities of demographic processes were evident between replicates during population increases, a dramatic decrease in survival of young contributed to population decline at one replicate, and “normal” levels of reproduction and survival were sufficient to produce a decline in the other replicate. Demographic mechanisms may vary, but population regulation of mammalian populations appears strongly dependent on food resources.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 73 (1987), S. 1-6 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Spermophilus ; Cost of reproduction ; Survivorship ; Reproductive success ; Ground squirrel
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The cost of reproduction for female Columbian ground squirrels was assessed using seven years of data from three populations in southwestern Alberta, Canada. Short-term costs, measured as reduced survival or lowered subsequent fecundity, were not directly associated with whether a female reproduced or not, nor with the females' litter size. In one of the populations, females that first reproduced as yearlings had slightly shorter lifespans, but almost 1.5 times the lifetime reproductive success, compared to those that first reproduced when older. Although short-term reproductive costs were not apparent from our data, we cannot conclude that reproduction was not costly. Such costs might exist but be masked by females' adjusting reproductive investment to their body condition. A weak association of spring (minimum) body weight of females and subsequent reproduction supported this possibility, as did correlated increases in body weight and litter size in a population given supplemental food.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: As part of the ERS-1 validation program, the ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) wave spectra validation experiment was carried out over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland (Canada) in Nov. 1991. The principal objective of the experiment was to obtain complete sets of wind and wave data from a variety of calibrated instruments to validate SAR measurements of ocean wave spectra. The field program activities are described and the rather complex wind and wave conditions which were observed are summarized. Spectral comparisons with ERS-1 SAR image spectra are provided. The ERS-1 SAR is shown to have measured swell and range traveling wind seas, but did not measure azimuth traveling wind seas at any time during the experiment. Results of velocity bunching forward mapping and new measurements of the relationship between wind stress and sea state are also shown.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: ESA, Proceedings of First ERS-1 Symposium on Space at the Service of Our Environment, Volume 1; p 35-40
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Animal Behaviour 30 (1982), S. 1183-1192 
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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