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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) was used to make simultaneous measurements of temperature, nitrogen and oxygen density in a reacting supersonic flow. A supersonic burner (SSB) was designed to provide supersonic flow in which combustion can be studied in the laboratory. Measurements made with the CARS system will be used for validation of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes. Preliminary results of the CFD calculations are presented.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: Johns Hopkins Univ., The 24th JANNAF Combustion Meeting, Volume 2; p 171-178
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The combustion of H2/CH4 and H2/C2H4 mixtures containing 10 to 70 vol pct hydrocarbon at combustor inlet Mach number 2 and temperatures 2000 to 4000 R is investigated experimentally, applying direct-connect test hardware and techniques similar to those described by Diskin and Northam (1987) in the facilities of the NASA Langley Hypersonic Propulsion Branch. The experimental setup, procedures, and data-reduction methods are described; and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. Fuel type and mixture are found to have little effect on the wall heating rate measured near the combustor exit, but H2/C2H4 is shown to burn much more efficiently than H2/CH4, with no pilot-off blowout equivalence ratios greater than 0.5. It is suggested that H2/hydrocarbon mixtures are feasible fuels (at least in terms of combustion efficiency) for scramjet SSTO vehicles operating at freestream Mach numbers above 4.
    Keywords: INORGANIC AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
    Type: Johns Hopkins Univ., The 24th JANNAF Combustion Meeting, Volume 2; p 155-169
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: The distribution of relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI) in the Boreal wintertime Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL - about 14-19 km) over the Pacific is examined with the extensive dataset of measurements from the NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX). Multiple deployments of the Global Hawk during ATTREX provided hundreds of vertical profiles spanning the Pacific with accurate measurements of temperature, pressure, water vapor concentration, ozone concentration, and cloud properties. We also compare the measured RHI distributions with results from a transport and microphysical model driven by meteorological analysis fields. Notable features in the distribution of RHI versus temperature and longitude include (1) the common occurrence of RHI values near ice saturation over the western Pacific in the lower TTL (temperatures greater than 200 K) and in airmasses with low ozone concentrations indicating recent detrainment from deep convection; (2) low RHI values in the lower TTL over the eastern Pacific where deep convection is infrequent; (3) RHI values following a constant H2O mixing ratio in the upper TTL (temperatures below about 195 degrees Kelvin), particularly for samples with ozone mixing ratios greater than about 50-100 parts-per-billion-volume indicating mixtures of tropospheric and stratospheric air, and (4) RHI values typically near ice saturation in the coldest airmasses sampled (temperatures less than about 190 degrees Kelvin). We find that the typically saturated air in the lower TTL over the western Pacific is largely driven by the frequent occurrence of deep convection in this region. The nearly-constant water vapor mixing ratios in the upper TTL result from the combination of slow ascent (resulting in long residence times) and wave-driven temperature variability on a range of time scales (resulting in most air parcels having experienced low temperature and dehydration).
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN38185 , American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting (AGU 2016); Dec 12, 2016 - Dec 16, 2016; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: This paper describes the procedures and algorithms for the laboratory calibration and the field data retrieval of the NASA Langley / Ames Diode Laser Hygrometer as implemented during the NASA Trace-P mission during February to April 2000. The calibration is based on a NIST traceable dewpoint hygrometer using relatively high humidity and short pathlength. Two water lines of widely different strengths are used to increase the dynamic range of the instrument in the course of a flight. The laboratory results are incorporated into a numerical model of the second harmonic spectrum for each of the two spectral window regions using spectroscopic parameters from the HITRAN database and other sources, allowing water vapor retrieval at upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric temperatures and humidity levels. The data retrieval algorithm is simple, numerically stable, and accurate. A comparison with other water vapor instruments on board the NASA DC-8 and ER-2 aircraft is presented.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: The spatial distribution of relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI) in the boreal wintertime tropical tropopause layer (TTL, is asymptotically Equal to 14-18 km) over the Pacific is examined with the measurements provided by the NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment. We also compare the measured RHI distributions with results from a transport and microphysical model driven by meteorological analysis fields. Notable features in the distribution of RHI versus temperature and longitude include (1) the common occurrence of RHI values near ice saturation over the western Pacific in the lower to middle TTL; (2) low RHI values in the lower TTL over the central and eastern Pacific; (3) common occurrence of RHI values following a constant mixing ratio in the middle to upper TTL (temperatures between 190 and 200 K); (4) RHI values typically near ice saturation in the coldest airmasses sampled; and (5) RHI values typically near 100% across the TTL temperature range in air parcels with ozone mixing ratios less than 50 ppbv. We suggest that the typically saturated air in the lower TTL over the western Pacific is likely driven by a combination of the frequent occurrence of deep convection and the predominance of rising motion in this region. The nearly constant water vapor mixing ratios in the middle to upper TTL likely result from the combination of slow ascent (resulting in long residence times) and wave-driven temperature variability. The numerical simulations generally reproduce the observed RHI distribution features, and sensitivity tests further emphasize the strong influence of convective input and vertical motions on TTL relative humidity.
    Keywords: Oceanography; Meteorology and Climatology; Numerical Analysis
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN47591 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (ISSN 2169-897X) (e-ISSN 2169-8996); 122; 11; 6094-6107
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The combustion of H2/CH4 and H2/C2H4 mixtures containing 10-70 vol pct hydrocarbon at cumbustor inlet Mach number 2 and temperatures 2000-4000 R is investigated experimentally, applying direct-connect test hardware and techniques similar to those described by Diskin and Northam (1987) in the facilities of the NASA Langley Hypersonic Propulsion Branch. The experimental setup, procedures, and data-reduction methods are described; and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. Fuel type and mixture are found to have little effect on the wall heating rate measured near the combustor exit, but H2/C2H4 is shown to burn much more efficiently than H2/CH4, with no pilot-off blowout at equivalence ratios greater than 0.5. It is suggested that H2/hydrocarbon mixtures are feasible fuels (at least in terms of combustion efficiency) for scramjet SSTO vehicles operating at freestream Mach numbers above 4.
    Keywords: PROPELLANTS AND FUELS
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-09-26
    Description: Accurate and consistent monitoring of anthropogenic combustion is imperative because of its significant health and environmental impacts, especially at city-to-regional scale. Here, we assess the performance of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) global prediction system using measurements from aircraft, ground sites, and ships during the Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) field study in May to June 2016. Our evaluation focuses on CAMS CO and CO2 analyses as well as two higher-resolution forecasts (16 and 9km horizontal resolution) to assess their capability in predicting combustion signatures over east Asia. Our results show a slight overestimation of CAMS CO2 with a mean bias against airborne CO2 measurements of 2.2, 0.7, and 0.3ppmv for 16 and 9km CO2 forecasts, and analyses, respectively. The positive CO2 mean bias in the 16km forecast appears to be consistent across the vertical profile of the measurements. In contrast, we find a moderate underestimation of CAMS CO with an overall bias against airborne CO measurements of 19.2 (16km), 16.7 (9km), and 20.7ppbv (analysis). This negative CO mean bias is mostly seen below 750hPa for all three forecast/analysis configurations. Despite these biases, CAMS shows a remarkable agreement with observed enhancement ratios of CO with CO2 over the Seoul metropolitan area and over the West (Yellow) Sea, where east Asian outflows were sampled during the study period. More efficient combustion is observed over Seoul (dCOdCO2 = 9ppbvppmv(exp 1)) compared to the West Sea (dCOdCO2 = 28ppbvppmv(exp 1)). This "combustion signature contrast" is consistent with previous studies in these two regions. CAMS captured this difference in enhancement ratios (Seoul: 812ppbvppmv(exp 1), the West Sea: 30ppbvppmv(exp 1)) regardless of forecast/analysis configurations. The correlation of CAMS CO bias with CO2 bias is relatively high over these two regions (Seoul: 0.640.90, the West Sea: 0.80) suggesting that the contrast captured by CAMS may be dominated by anthropogenic emission ratios used in CAMS. However, CAMS shows poorer performance in terms of capturing local-to-urban CO and CO2 variability. Along with measurements at ground sites over the Korean Peninsula, CAMS produces too high CO and CO2 concentrations at the surface with steeper vertical gradients ( 0.4ppmvhPa(exp 1) for CO2 and 3.5ppbvhPa(exp 1) for CO) in the morning samples than observed ( 0.25ppmvhPa(exp 1) for CO2 and 1.7ppbvhPa(exp 1) for CO), suggesting weaker boundary layer mixing in the model. Lastly, we find that the combination of CO analyses (i.e., improved initial condition) and use of finer resolution (9km vs. 16km) generally produces better forecasts.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN61698 , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ISSN 1680-7316) (e-ISSN 1680-7324); 18; 15; 11007-11030
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: This White Paper examines the current state of Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion at the NASA Langley Research Center and the factors influencing this area of work and its personnel. Using this knowledge, the paper explores beyond the present day and suggests future directions and strategies for the field. Broad views are first taken regarding potential missions and applications of hypersonic propulsion. Then, candidate propulsion systems that may be applicable to these missions are suggested and discussed. Design tools and experimental techniques for developing these propulsion systems are then described, and approaches for applying them in the design process are considered. In each case, current strategies are reviewed and future approaches that may improve the techniques are considered. Finally, the paper concentrates on the needs to be addressed in each of these areas to take advantage of the opportunities that lay ahead for both the NASA Langley Research Center and the Aerodynamic Aerothermodynamic, and Aeroacoustics Competency. Recommendations are then provided so that the goals set forth in the paper may be achieved.
    Keywords: Aircraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: NASA/TM-2002-211951 , L-18110 , NAS 1.15:211951
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: At flight speeds, the residence time for atmospheric air ingested into a scramjet inlet and exiting from the engine nozzle is on the order of a millisecond. Therefore, fuel injected into the air must efficiently mix within tens of microseconds and react to release its energy in the combustor. The overall combustion process should be mixing controlled to provide a stable operating environment; in reality, however, combustion in the upstream portion of the combustor, particularly at higher Mach numbers, is kinetically controlled where ignition delay times are on the same order as the fluid scale. Both mixing and combustion time scales must be considered in a detailed study of mixing and reaction in a scramjet to understand the flow processes and to ultimately achieve a successful design. Although the geometric configuration of a scramjet is relatively simple compared to a turbomachinery design, the flow physics associated with the simultaneous injection of fuel from multiple injector configurations, and the mixing and combustion of that fuel downstream of the injectors is still quite complex. For this reason, many researchers have considered the more tractable problem of a spatially developing, primarily supersonic, chemically reacting mixing layer or jet that relaxes only the complexities introduced by engine geometry. All of the difficulties introduced by the fluid mechanics, combustion chemistry, and interactions between these phenomena can be retained in the reacting mixing layer, making it an ideal problem for the detailed study of supersonic reacting flow in a scramjet. With a good understanding of the physics of the scramjet internal flowfield, the designer can then return to the actual scramjet geometry with this knowledge and apply engineering design tools that more properly account for the complex physics. This approach will guide the discussion in the remainder of this section.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Measurements of mass flux are obtained in a vitiated supersonic ground test facility using a sensor based on line-of-sight (LOS) diode laser absorption of water vapor. Mass flux is determined from the product of measured velocity and density. The relative Doppler shift of an absorption transition for beams directed upstream and downstream in the flow is used to measure velocity. Temperature is determined from the ratio of absorption signals of two transitions (lambda(sub 1)=1349 nm and lambda(sub 2)=1341.5 nm) and is coupled with a facility pressure measurement to obtain density. The sensor exploits wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f) for large signal-to-noise ratios and normalization with the 1f signal for rejection of non-absorption related transmission fluctuations. The sensor line-of-sight is translated both vertically and horizontally across the test section for spatially-resolved measurements. Time-resolved measurements of mass flux are used to assess the stability of flow conditions produced by the facility. Measurements of mass flux are within 1.5% of the value obtained using a facility predictive code. The distortion of the WMS lineshape caused by boundary layers along the laser line-of-sight is examined and the subsequent effect on the measured velocity is discussed. A method for correcting measured velocities for flow non-uniformities is introduced and application of this correction brings measured velocities within 4 m/s of the predicted value in a 1630 m/s flow.
    Keywords: Lasers and Masers
    Type: AIAA Paper 2011-1093 , NF1676L-11888 , NF1676L-13988 , 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting; Jan 04, 2011 - Jan 07, 2011; Orlando, FL; United States|AIAA Journal; 49; 12; 2783-2791
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