Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 122: Energy Flexibility from Large Prosumers to Support Distribution System Operation—A Technical and Legal Case Study on the Amsterdam ArenA Stadium Energies doi: 10.3390/en11010122 Authors: Dirk Kuiken Heyd Más Maryam Haji Ghasemi Niels Blaauwbroek Thai Vo Thijs van der Klauw Phuong Nguyen To deal with the rising integration of stochastic renewables and energy intensive distributed energy resources (DER) to the electricity network, alternatives to expensive network reinforcements are increasingly needed. An alternative solution often under consideration is integrating flexibility from the consumer side to system management. However, such a solution needs to be contemplated from different angles before it can be implemented in practice. To this end, this article considers a case study of the Amsterdam ArenA stadium and its surrounding network where flexibility is expected to be available to support the network in the future. The article studies the technical aspects of using this flexibility to determine to what extent, despite the different, orthogonal goals, the available flexibility can be used by various stakeholders in scenarios with a large load from electric vehicle charging points. Furthermore, a legal study is performed to determine the feasibility of the technical solutions proposed by analysing current European Union (EU) and Dutch law and focusing on the current agreements existing between the parties involved. The article shows that flexibility in the network provided by Amsterdam ArenA is able to significantly increase the number of charging points the network can accommodate. Nonetheless, while several uses of flexibility are feasible under current law, the use of flexibility provided by electric vehicles specifically faces several legal challenges in current arrangements.
Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering