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  • 1
    Call number: 20-2/M 12.0175
    In: Modern approaches in solid earth sciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Microbial systems in extreme environments and in the deep biosphere may be analogous to potential life on other planetary bodies and hence may be used to investigate the possibilities of extraterrestrial life. This book examines the mode and nature of links between geological processes and microbial activities and their significance for the origin and evolution of life on the Earth and possibly on other planets. This is a truly interdisciplinary science with societal relevance. Inhaltsverzeichnis: Preface. Acknowledgements. Contributors. 1. Oceanic pillow lavas and hyaloclastites as habitats for microbial life through time - a review; H. Furnes et al. 2. Microbial colonization of various habitable niches during alteration of oceanic crust; M. Ivarsson, N.G. Holm. 3. Ambient inclusion trails: their recognition, age range and applicability to early life on earth; D. Wacey et al. 4. Spatial distribution of the subseafloor life: diversity of biogeography; F. Inagaki, S. Nakagawa. 5. Analysis of deep subsurface microbial communities by functional genes and genomics; A. Teske, J. Biddle. 6. Diversity of Behamian stromatolite substrates; R. Ginsburg, N. Planavsky. 7. Evaporite microbial films, mats, microbialites, and stromatolites; R. Brigmon et al. 8. Microbial life in extreme environments: linking geological and microbial processes; H. Dong. 9. Marine methane biochemistry of the Black Sea: a review; T. Pape et al. 10. From volcanic winter to snowball earth: an alternative explanation for neoproterozoic biosphere stress; R.J. Stern et al. Subject index.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 364 S. , Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
    ISBN: 9789048178377
    Series Statement: Modern approaches in solid earth sciences 4
    Classification:
    D.8.
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Call number: S 90.0095(373)
    In: Special paper
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: xii, 504 S. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt. + 1 Kt.-Beil.
    ISBN: 0813723736
    Series Statement: Special paper / Geological Society of America (GSA) 373
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Call number: 9/M 07.0155
    In: Geological Society special publication
    Description / Table of Contents: The 32 research papers in this volume examine the mode and nature of igneous, metamorphic, tectonic, sedimentological and biological processes associated with the evolution of ophiolites in Earth's history. Divided into six sections, the book presents a wealth of new data and syntheses from ophiolites around the world. Introductory chapters review the distribution of ophiolites in space and time and present a synoptic discussion on their importance in Earth history. Papers in the second section present diverse data from Tethyan ophiolites and provide refined geodynamic models for their evolution. The following two sections present case studies documenting magmatic, metamorphic and tectonic processes in ophiolite genesis and hydrothermal and biogenic alteration of fossil oceanic crust. Mechanisms of ophiolite emplacement are explored in Section V with a focus on the Semail massif (Oman). The last section examines the regional occurrence and geodynamic significance of ophiolite belts on different continents. The book reflects the contemporary work of the international community in a most up-to-date treatment of process-oriented questions on the evolution of ophiolites.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: VI, 717 S. , Ill., graph. Darst., Kt. , 26 cm
    ISBN: 1862391459
    Series Statement: Geological Society special publication 218
    Classification:
    Geochemistry
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
    Call number: 9/M 07.0421(501)
    In: Geological Society special publication : 501
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 664 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISSN: 978-1-78620-478-3
    Series Statement: Geological Society special publication no. 501
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Description / Table of Contents: The complexity of plate interactions and associated crustal deformation in the Eastern Mediterranean region is reflected by the numerous destructive earthquakes that have occurred throughout its history. Many of these have been well documented and studied. In addition, the Aegean region provides examples of core-complex formation, synchronous basin evolution and subsequent graben formation and continental extensional deformation following orogenic contraction. It is therefore considered to be a perfect natural laboratory for the study of these mechanisms. The region has been the subject of intensive research for several decades. This book contains current results and ideas regarding the geodynamics of the Aegean and Anatolia. It will be essential reading for all geoscientists with an interest in the structural evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (314 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862392397
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Unknown
    London : The Geological Society
    Description / Table of Contents: The 32 research papers in this volume examine the mode and nature of igneous, metamorphic, tectonic, sedimentological and biological processes associated with the evolution of ophiolites in Earth's history. Divided into six sections, the book presents a wealth of new data and syntheses from ophiotites around the world. Introductory chapters review the distribution of ophiolites in space and time and present a synoptic discussion on their importance in Earth history. Papers in the second section present diverse data from Tethyan ophiolites and provide refined geodynamic models for their evolution. The following two sections present case studies documenting magmatic, metamorphic and tectonic processes in ophiolite genesis and hydrothermal and biogenic alteration of fossil oceanic crust. Mechanisms of ophiolite emplacement are explored in Section V with a focus on the Semail massif (Oman). The last section examines the regional occurrence and geodynamic significance of ophiolite belts on different continents. The book reflects the contemporary work of the international community in a most up-to-date treatment of process-oriented questions on the evolution of ophiolites.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (IX, 716 Seiten)
    ISBN: 1862391459
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Melbourne, Australia : Blackwell Science Pty
    The @island arc 14 (2005), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1440-1738
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1440-1738
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite complex (SSOC) in western Norway represents a remnant of the Late Ordovician oceanic lithosphere, which developed in an intermediate- to fast-spreading Caledonian back-arc basin. The internal architecture and magmatic features of its crustal component suggest that the SSOC has a complex, multistage sea floor spreading history in a supra-subduction zone environment. The youngest crustal section associated with the propagating rift tectonics consists of a relatively complete ophiolite pseudostratigraphy, including basaltic volcanic rocks, a transition zone between the sheeted dyke complex and the extrusive sequence, sheeted dykes, and high-level isotropic gabbros. Large-scale variations in major and trace element distributions indicate significant remobilization far beyond that which would result from magmatic processes, as a result of the hydrothermal alteration of crustal rocks. Whereas K2O is strongly enriched in volcanic rocks of the extrusive sequence, Cu and Zn show the largest enrichment in the dyke complex near the dyke–volcanic transition zone or within this transition zone. The δ18O values of the whole-rock samples show a general depletion structurally downwards in the ophiolite, with the largest and smallest variations observed in volcanic rocks and the transition zone, respectively. δ18O values of epidote–quartz mineral pairs indicate 260–290°C for volcanic rocks, 420°C for the transition zone, 280–345°C for the sheeted dyke complex and 290–475°C for the gabbros. The 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios show the widest range and highest values in the extrusive rocks (0.70316–0.70495), and generally the lowest values and the narrowest range in the sheeted dyke complex (0.70338–0.70377). The minimum water/rock ratios calculated show the largest variations in volcanic rocks and gabbros (approximately 0–14), and generally the lowest values and range in the sheeted dyke complex (approximately 1–3). The δD values of epidote (−1 to −12‰), together with the δ18O calculated for Ordovician seawater, are similar to those of present-day seawater. Volcanic rocks experienced both cold and warm water circulation, resulting in the observed K2O-enrichment and the largest scatter in the δ18O values. As a result of metal leaching in the hot reaction zone above a magma chamber, Zn is strongly depleted in the gabbros but enriched in the sheeted dyke complex because of precipitation from upwelling of discharged hydrothermal fluids. The present study demonstrates that the near intact effect of ocean floor hydrothermal activity is preserved in the upper part of the SSOC crust, despite the influence of regional lower greenschist facies metamorphism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2009-04-30
    Description: Post-collisional magmatism in western Anatolia began in the Eocene, and has occurred in discrete pulses throughout the Cenozoic as it propagated from north to south, producing volcano-plutonic associations with varying chemical compositions. This apparent SW migration of magmatism and accompanying extension through time was a result of the thermally induced collapse of the western Anatolian orogenic belt, which formed during the collision of the Sakarya and Tauride-Anatolide continental blocks in the late Paleocene. The thermal input and melt sources for this prolonged magmatism were provided first by slab break-off-generated aesthenospheric flow, then by lithospheric delamination-related aesthenospheric flow, followed by tectonic extension-driven upward aesthenospheric flow. The first magmatic episode is represented by Eocene granitoid plutons and their extrusive carapace that are linearly distributed along the Izmir-Ankara suture zone south of the Marmara Sea. These suites show moderately evolved compositions enriched in incompatible elements similar to subduction zone-influenced subalkaline magmas. Widespread Oligo-Miocene volcanic and plutonic rocks with medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions represent the next magmatic episode. Partial melting and assimilation-fractional crystallization of enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle-derived magmas were important processes in the genesis and evolution of the parental magmas, which experienced decreasing subduction influence and increasing crustal contamination during the evolution of the Eocene and Oligo-Miocene volcano-plutonic rocks. Collision-induced lithospheric slab break-off provided an influx of aesthenospheric heat and melts that resulted in partial melting of the previously subduction-metasomatized mantle lithosphere beneath the suture zone, producing the Eocene and Oligo-Miocene igneous suites. The following magmatic phase during the middle Miocene (16-14 Ma) developed mildly alkaline bimodal volcanic rocks that show a decreasing amount of crustal contamination and subduction influence in time. Both melting of a subduction-modified lithospheric mantle and aesthenospheric mantle-derived melt contribution played a significant role in the generation of the magmas of these rocks. This magmatic episode was attended by region-wide extension that led to the formation of metamorphic core complexes and graben systems. Aesthenospheric upwelling caused by partial delamination of the lithospheric root beneath the western Anatolian orogenic belt was likely responsible for the melt evolution of these mildly alkaline volcanics. Lithospheric delamination may have been caused by peeling off' during slab rollback. The last major phase of magmatism in the region, starting c.12 Ma, is represented by late Miocene to Quaternary alkaline to super-alkaline volcanic rocks that show OIB-like geochemical features with progressively more potassic compositions increasing toward south in time. These rocks are spatially associated with major extensional fault systems that acted as natural conduits for the transport of uncontaminated alkaline magmas to the surface. The melt source for this magmatic phase carried little or no subduction component and was produced by the decompressional melting of aesthenospheric mantle, which flowed in beneath the attenuated continental lithosphere in the Aegean extensional province. This time-progressive evolution of Cenozoic magmatism and extension in western Anatolia has been strongly controlled by the interplay between regional plate-tectonic events and the mantle dynamics, and provides a realistic template for post-collisional magmatism and crustal extension in many orogenic belts.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2009-10-15
    Description: The Miocene granitoid plutons exposed in the footwalls of major detachment faults in the Menderes core complex in western Anatolia represent syn-extensional intrusions, providing important geochronological and geochemical constraints on the nature of the late Cenozoic magmatism associated with crustal extension in the Aegean province. Ranging in composition from granite, granodiorite to monzonite, these plutons crosscut the extensional deformation fabrics in their metamorphic host rocks but are foliated, mylonitized and cataclastically deformed in shear zones along the detachment faults structurally upward near the surface. Crystallization and cooling ages of the granitoid rocks are nearly coeval with the documented ages of metamorphism and deformation dating back to the latest Oligocene-early Miocene that record tectonic extension and exhumation in the Menderes massif. The Menderes granitoids (MEG) are represented by mainly metaluminous-slightly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline and partly shoshonitic rocks with their silica contents ranging from 62.5 to 78.2 wt%. They display similar major and trace element characteristics and overlapping inter-element ratios (Zr/Nb, La/Nb, Rb/Nb, Ce/Y) suggesting common melt sources. Their enrichment in LILE, strong negative anomalies in Ba, Ta, Nb, Sr and Ti and high incompatible element abundances are consistent with derivation of their magmas from a subduction-metasomatized, heterogeneous sub-continental lithospheric mantle source. Fractional crystalization processes and lower to middle crustal contamination also affected the evolution of the MEG magmas. These geochemical characteristics of the MEG are similar to those of the granitoids in the Cyclades to the west and the Rhodope massif to the north. Partial melting of the subduction-metasomatized lithospheric mantle and the overlying lower-middle crust produced the MEG magmas starting in the late Oligocene-early Miocene. The heat and the basaltic material to induce this partial melting were provided by asthenospheric upwelling caused by lithospheric delamination. Rapid slab rollback of the post-Eocene Hellenic subduction zone may have peeled off the base of the subcontinental lithosphere, triggering the inferred lithospheric delamination. Both slab retreat-generated upper plate deformation and magmatically induced crustal weakening led to the onset of the Aegean extension, which has migrated southward through time.
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