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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-21
    Description: Isotopic and chemical composition of groundwater from wells and springs, and surface water from the basalt-dominated Axum area (northern Ethiopia) provides evidence for the origin of water and dissolved species. Shallow (depth 〈 40 m) and deep groundwater are distinguished by both chemical and isotopic composition. Deep groundwater is significantly enriched in dissolved inorganic carbon up to 40 mmol l−1 and in concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and Si(OH)4 compared to the shallow type. The δ2H and δ18O values of all solutions clearly indicate meteoric origin. Shifts from the local meteoric water line are attributed to evaporation of surface and spring water, and to strong water–rock interaction. The δ13CDIC values of shallow groundwater between −12 and −7‰ (VPDB) display the uptake of CO2 from local soil horizons, whereas δ13CDIC of deep groundwater ranges from −5 to +1‰. Considering open system conditions with respect to gaseous CO2, δ13CDIC = +1‰ of the deep groundwater with highest PCO2 = 10−0.9 atm yields δ13CCO2(gas) ≈ −5‰, which is close to the stable carbon isotopic composition of magmatic CO2. Accordingly, stable carbon isotope ratios within the above range are referred to individual proportions of CO2 from soil and magmatic origin. The uptake of magmatic CO2 results in elevated cations and Si(OH)4 concentrations. Weathering of local basalts is documented by 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the groundwater from 0.7038 to 0.7059. Highest values indicate Sr release from the basement rocks. Besides weathering of silicates, neoformation of solids has to be considered, which results in the formation of, e.g., kaolinite and montmorillonite. In several solutions supersaturation with respect to calcite is reached by outgassing of CO2 from the solution leading to secondary calcite formation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Due to their thermodynamically stable low-Mg calcite mineralogy, the shells of brachiopods are often counted among the most reliable archives of the physicochemical conditions that occurred during the Phanerozoic in marine waters. Consequently, traditional and non-traditional isotope and elemental proxy data from brachiopod valves have been analyzed in numerous studies and results obtained have been placed in context with ancient seawater properties. This paper tests the sensitivity of brachiopod shell magnesium isotope (δ26Mg) data to diagenetic alteration. We apply a dual approach by: (i) performing hydrothermal alteration experiments using meteoric, marine, and burial reactive fluids; and (ii) comparing these data to naturally altered, ancient brachiopod shells. The degree of alteration of individual shells is assessed by a combination of fluorescence and cathodoluminescence microscopy. The absence of luminescence might indicate both well-preserved shell material, but also the secondary enrichment of quenching elements such as iron along diagenetic pathways. Complementary oxygen isotope data provide insight into the question of open versus closed system behavior of brachiopod shells. Brachiopod shell magnesium isotope values respond to differential fluid temperature, chemistry, and experiment durations. The patterns observed are complicated by the interplay of kinetic and thermodynamic patterns and the presence of variable amounts of water soluble and water insoluble organic matter within these biominerals. Generally, the range in bulk δ26Mg from experimentally altered (1.52‰) and that of bulk samples from ancient, diagenetically altered brachiopod valves (1.53‰) exceed the geochemical variability of δ26Mgbrachiopod bulk values of most recent specimens (1.26‰) in the lower and upper range. More 26Mg enriched (0.8‰) and more 26Mg depleted (0.7‰) values, respectively, are found in altered shells in comparison to unaltered ones. The data shown here are considered significant for those aiming to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental parameters based on brachiopod archives. Consequently, we propose tentative guidelines for magnesium isotope research applied to ancient carbonates.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: In this study we examine the behavior of stable Sr isotopes between strontianite [SrCO3] and reactive fluid during mineral dissolution, precipitation, and at chemical equilibrium. Experiments were performed in batch reactors at 25 °C in 0.01 M NaCl solutions wherein the pH was adjusted by bubbling of a water saturated gas phase of pure CO2 or atmospheric air. The equilibrium Sr isotope fractionation between strontianite and fluid after dissolution of the solid under 1 atm CO2 atmosphere was estimated as Δ88/86SrSrCO3-fluid = δ88/86Sr SrCO3 − δ88/86Srfluid = −0.05 ± 0.01‰. On the other hand, during strontianite precipitation, an enrichment of the fluid phase in 88Sr, the heavy isotopomer, was observed. The evolution of the δ88/86Srfluid during strontianite precipitation can be modeled using a Rayleigh distillation approach and the estimated, kinetically driven, fractionation factor αSrCO3-fluid between solid and fluid is calculated to be 0.99985 ± 0.00003 corresponding to Δ88/86SrSrCO3-fluid = −0.15‰. The obtained results further support that under chemical equilibrium conditions between solid and fluid a continuous exchange of isotopes occurs until the system approaches isotopic equilibrium. This isotopic exchange is not limited to the outer surface layer of the strontianite crystal, but extends to ∼7–8 unit cells below the crystal surface. The behavior of Sr isotopes in this study is in excellent agreement with the concept of dynamic equilibrium and it suggests that the time needed for achievement of chemical equilibrium is generally shorter compared to that for isotopic equilibrium. Thus it is suggested that in natural Sr-bearing carbonates an isotopic change may still occur close to thermodynamic equilibrium, despite no observable change in aqueous elemental concentrations. As such, a secondary and ongoing change of Sr isotope signals in carbonate minerals caused by isotopic re-equilibration with fluids has to be considered in order to use Sr isotopes as environmental proxies in aquatic environments.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The assessment of diagenetic overprint on microstructural and geochemical data gained from fossil archives is of fundamental importance for understanding palaeoenvironments. The correct reconstruction of past environmental dynamics is only possible when pristine skeletons are unequivocally distinguished from altered skeletal elements. Our previous studies show (i) that replacement of biogenic carbonate by inorganic calcite occurs via an interface-coupled dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism. (ii) A comprehensive understanding of alteration of the biogenic skeleton is only given when structural changes are assessed on both, the micrometre as well as on the nanometre scale. In the present contribution we investigate experimental hydrothermal alteration of six different modern biogenic carbonate materials to (i) assess their potential for withstanding diagenetic overprint and to (ii) find characteristics for the preservation of their microstructure in the fossil record. Experiments were performed at 175°C with a 100 mM NaCl + 10 mM MgCl2 alteration solution and lasted for up to 35 days. For each type of microstructure we (i) examine the evolution of biogenic carbonate replacement by inorganic calcite, (ii) highlight different stages of inorganic carbonate formation, (iii) explore microstructural changes at different degrees of alteration, and (iv) perform a statistical evaluation of microstructural data to highlight changes in crystallite size between the pristine and the altered skeletons. We find that alteration from biogenic aragonite to inorganic calcite proceeds along pathways where the fluid enters the material. It is fastest in hard tissues with an existing primary porosity and a biopolymer fabric within the skeleton that consists of a network of fibrils. The slowest alteration kinetics occurs when biogenic nacreous aragonite is replaced by inorganic calcite, irrespective of the mode of assembly of nacre tablets. For all investigated biogenic carbonates we distinguish the following intermediate stages of alteration: (i) decomposition of biopolymers and the associated formation of secondary porosity, (ii) homoepitactic overgrowth with preservation of the original phase leading to amalgamation of neighbouring mineral units (i.e. recrystallization by grain growth eliminating grain boundaries), (iii) deletion of the original microstructure, however, at first, under retention of the original mineralogical phase, and (iv) replacement of both, the pristine microstructure and original phase with the newly formed abiogenic product. At the alteration front we find between newly formed calcite and reworked biogenic aragonite the formation of metastable Mg-rich carbonates with a calcite-type structure and compositions ranging from dolomitic to about 80mol % magnesite. This high-Mg calcite seam shifts with the alteration front when the latter is displaced within the unaltered biogenic aragonite. For all investigated biocarbonate hard tissues we observe the destruction of the microstructure first, and, in a second step, the replacement of the original with the newly formed phase.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-09-26
    Description: In order to apply Sr/Ca and 44Ca/40Ca fractionation during calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formation as a proxy to reconstruct paleo-environments, it is essential to evaluate the impact of various environmental factors. In this study, a CO2 diffusion technique was used to crystallize inorganic calcite from aqueous solutions at different ionic strength/salinity by the addition of NaCl at 25 °C. Results show that the discrimination of Sr2+ versus Ca2+ during calcite formation is mainly controlled by precipitation rate (R in μmol/m2/h) and is weakly influenced by ionic strength/salinity. In analogy to Sr incorporation, 44Ca/40Ca fractionation during precipitation of calcite is weakly influenced by ionic strength/salinity too. At 25 °C the calcium isotope fractionation between calcite and aqueous calcium ions (Δ44/40Cacalcite-aq = δ44/40Cacalcite − δ44/40Caaq) correlates inversely to log R values for all experiments. In addition, an inverse relationship between Δ44/40Cacalcite-aq and log DSr, which is independent of temperature, precipitation rate, and aqueous (Sr/Ca)aq ratio, is not affected by ionic strength/salinity either. Considering the log DSr and Δ44/40Cacalcite-aq relationship, Sr/Ca and δ44/40Cacalcite values of precipitated calcite can be used as an excellent multi-proxy approach to reconstruct environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, precipitation rate) of calcite growth and diagenetic alteration.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    Mineralogical Society
    In:  In: Ion partitioning in ambient-temperature aqueous systems. , ed. by Prieto, M. and Stoll, H. EMU Notes in Mineralogy, 10 . Mineralogical Society, Twickenham, UK, pp. 139-187. ISBN 978-0903056-26-7
    Publication Date: 2012-11-05
    Description: The partitioning of an ionic species between two or more co-existing phases is closely related to chemical speciation, solubility, sorption and solid-solution formation in the geochemical system. The aim of chemical thermodynamic modelling is to find the stable or metastable chemical speciation in such a system; from that, any possible ion partition or distribution coefficient can be retrieved. This chapter aims to highlight some typical features of modelling the equilibrium partitioning of inorganic ionic species between aqueous electrolyte and solid phases, including adsorption and ion exchange on their surfaces. Some guidance is also given on methods and computer codes that can be used in helping us understand and predict ion partitioning in complex scenarios, where several competing solids are involved in a minor element uptake by different mechanisms.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-26
    Description: We report on multi-wavelength observations of the corona taken simultaneously in broadband white light, and in seven spectral lines, H-alpha 656.3 nm, Fe IX 435.9 nm, Fe X 637.4 nm, Fe XI 789.2 nm, Fe XIII 1074.7 nm, Fe XIV 530.3 nm and Ni XV 670.2 nm. The observations were made during the total solar eclipse of 11 July 2010 from the atoll of Tatakoto in French Polynesia. Simultaneous imaging with narrow bandpass filters in each of these spectral lines and in their corresponding underlying continua maximized the observing time during less than ideal observing conditions and yielded outstanding quality data. The application of two complementary image processing techniques revealed the finest details of coronal structures at 1" resolution in white light, and 6.5" in each of the spectral lines. This comprehensive wavelength coverage confirmed earlier eclipse findings that the solar corona has a clear two-temperature structure: The open field lines, expanding outwards from the solar surface, are characterized by electron temperatures near 1 X 10(exp 6) K, while the hottest plasma around 2X 10(exp 6) K resides in loop-like structures forming the bulges of streamers. The first images of the corona in the forbidden lines of Fe IX and Ni XV, showed that there was very little coronal plasma at temperatures below 5 X 10(exp 5) K and above 2.5X 10(exp 6) K. The data also enabled temperature differentiations as low as 0:2 X 10(exp 6) K in different density structures. These observations showed how the passage of CMEs through the corona, prior to totality, produced large scale ripples and very sharp streaks, which could be identified with distinct temperatures for the first time. The ripples were most prominent in emission from spectral lines associated with temperatures around 10(exp 6) K. The most prominent streak was associated with a conical-shaped void in the emission from the coolest line of Fe IX and from the hottest line of Ni XV. A prominence, which erupted prior to totality, appeared in the shape of a hook in the cooler lines of Fe X and Fe XI, spanning 0.5 R(solar) in extent starting at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 R(solar), with a complex trail of hot and cool twisted structures connecting it to the solar surface. Simultaneous Fe X 17.4 nm observations from space by Proba2/SWAP provided an ideal opportunity for comparing emission from a coronal forbidden line, namely Fe X 637.4 nm, with a space-based EUV allowed line. Comparison of the Fe X 17.4 nm and 637.4 nm emission provided the first textbook example of the role of radiative excitation in extending the detectability of coronal emission to much larger heliocentric distances than its collisionally excited component. These eclipse observations demonstrate the unique capabilities of coronal forbidden lines for exploring the evolution of the coronal magnetic field in the heliocentric distance range of 1 - 3 R(solar), which is currently inaccessible to any space-borne or ground-based observatory.
    Keywords: Solar Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: We have investigated the strontium isotope fractionation (Δ88/86Srcarb–aq) between inorganic calcite and aqueous Sr2+ ions by precipitation experiments at a constant temperature of 25 °C and precipitation rates (R) ranging from 102.3 to 104.2 μmol/m2/h. Strontium isotope ratios were measured using the 87Sr–84Sr double spike technique. It was found that strontium isotope fractionation in these calcites is strongly dependent on the precipitation rate: View the MathML source The measured δ88/86Sr values are significantly correlated with previously measured δ44/40Ca and Sr/Ca values of the same calcite samples: Δ88/86Srcarb–aq=+0.18∗Δ44/40Cacarb–aq-0.01 View the MathML source The slope of 88Sr/86Sr versus 44Ca/40Ca fractionation is 0.18 ± 0.04 and compatible with a kinetic fractionation during dehydration of the strontium and calcium ions, but not with isotope fractionation in a diffusive boundary layer. Using published equilibrium Δ44/40Cacarb–aq and View the MathML source values we estimate the equilibrium isotope fractionation of strontium to be very close to zero (Δ88/86Sreq(carb–aq) = −0.01 ± 0.06‰). This estimate is confirmed by strontium isotope values of natural inorganic calcites that precipitated very slowly in basalts of the ocean crust. The results from the inorganic calcites are used to explain strontium isotope fractionation of planktic foraminifera. Specimens of two warm water species (Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerinoides sacculifer) were picked from the Holocene section of a Caribbean sediment core. We found no significant difference in δ88/86Sr between the two species. In addition, G. ruber specimens from Marine Isotope Stage 2 in the same core show δ88/86Sr values identical to the Holocene specimens. The strontium isotopes of both foraminifera species are strongly fractionated (Δ88/86Srcarb–aq = −0.248 ± 0.005‰) when compared to published data of other major marine calcifiers. Applying the results from the inorganic precipitation experiments we find that the strong foraminiferal strontium isotope fractionation can be explained by calcification in a largely open system at high precipitation rates, comparable in magnitude to rates known from scleractinian reef corals. This interpretation is in good agreement with the kinetic calcification model for planktic foraminifera by Kisakürek et al. (2011), which was based on calcium isotopes and elemental Sr/Ca ratios.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Conflicting results have been reported for the stable Sr isotope fractionation, specifically with respect to the influence of temperature. In an experimental study we have investigated the stable Sr isotope systematics for inorganically precipitated and biogenic (coral) aragonite (natural and laboratory-cultured). Inorganic aragonite precipitation experiments were performed from natural seawater using the CO2 diffusion technique. The experiments were performed at different temperatures and different carbonate ion concentrations. 88Sr/86Sr of the inorganic aragonite precipitated in the experiments are 0.2‰ lighter than seawater, but showed no correlation to the water temperature or to CO32− concentration. Similar observations are made in different coral species (Cladocora caespitosa, Porites sp. and Acropora sp.), with identical fractionation from the bulk solution and no correlation to temperature or CO32− concentration. The lack of 88Sr/86Sr variability in corals at different environmental parameters and the similarity to the 88Sr/86Sr fractionation in inorganic aragonite may indicate a similar Sr incorporation mechanism in corals skeleton and inorganic aragonite, and therefore the previously proposed Rayleigh-based multi element model (Gaetani et al., 2011) cannot explain the process of Sr incorporation in the coral skeletal material. It is proposed that the relatively constant 88Sr/86Sr fractionation in aragonite can be used for paleo reconstruction of seawater 88Sr/86Sr composition. The seawater 88Sr/86Sr ratio reconstruction can be further used in calcite samples to reconstruct paleo precipitation rates.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-12-03
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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