excretory balance man
plasma protein binding
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Summary The absorption, biotransformation and elimination of the anticoagulant acenocoumarol, 3-[α- (4′-nitrophenyl)-β-acetylethyl]-4-hydroxycoumarin, have been studied by oral administration of 12 mg of a14C-labelled preparation to two male volunteers. Absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract was rapid and the plasma concentration of unchanged drug reached a maximum of 169 and 412 ng/ml, respectively, after 3 hours. The elimination half-life in the two subjects, calculated from the decline between 6 and 24 h, was 8.7 and 8.2 hours. A constant proportion of 98.7% of the drug was bound in vitro to serum proteins over a concentration range of 0.021–8.34 µg/ml, with little interindividual variation. The major portion of the binding was to human serum albumin (97.5%) at two classes of binding sites: association constant K1=1.04×105 l/mole (n1=1) and K2=5.55×103 l/mole (n2=4). In addition to unchanged acenocoumarol, four metabolites were determined in plasma by isotope dilution techniques: the amino-, acetamido-, alcohol1- and alcohol2-metabolites. Of them, the amino-metabolite showed the highest concentration, namely 278 ng/ml, after 6 h in Subject A, and 163 ng/ml after 10 hours in Subject B. Judged from the integrated concentrations, the compounds analyzed accounted for 76 and 89%, respectively, of the total radioactivity in plasma. All the metabolites detected in plasma showed anticoagulant activity when tested in mice. The quantities of the metabolites excreted in urine from 0–120 hours were (Subject A/Subject B): acenocoumarol 0.3/0.2%, amino-metabolite 12.3/7.7%, acetamido-metabolite 19.0/11.1%, alcohol1-metabolite 4.6/9.0%, alcohol2-metabolite 1.7/4.4%, 6-hydroxy-metabolite 6.9/18.3% and 7-hydroxy-metabolite 14.0/22.2%.
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