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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key wordsAspergillus niger ; Mycovirus transmission ; Heterokaryon compatibility ; Double-stranded RNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The extent of heterokaryon (also termed somatic or vegetative) incompatibility among black Aspergillus strains was examined using nitrate non-utilising mutants selected on chlorate medium. Pairings of complementary mutants showed that somatic compatibility between different strains is exceptional in natural populations of the asexual black Aspergilli. Mycoviruses are present in a considerable fraction of the sampled natural population, but surprisingly, horizontal transfer of mycoviruses only occurs – at least under laboratory conditions – between the (very rare) compatible combinations of strains. Thus, unlike other fungal species, somatic incompatibility in black Aspergilli efficiently blocks virus transfer. Viruses present in black Aspergillus isolates are highly efficiently transmitted to asexual progeny.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-06-26
    Description: Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia: Banksiophoma australiensis (incl. Banksiophoma gen. nov.) on Banksia coccinea, Davidiellomyces australiensis (incl. Davidiellomyces gen. nov.) on Cyperaceae, Didymocyrtis banksiae on Banksia sessilis var. cygnorum, Disculoides calophyllae on Corymbia calophylla, Harknessia banksiae on Banksia sessilis, Harknessia banksiae-repens on Banksia repens, Harknessia banksiigena on Banksia sessilis var. cygnorum, Harknessia communis on Podocarpus sp., Harknessia platyphyllae on Eucalyptus platyphylla, Myrtacremonium eucalypti (incl. Myrtacremonium gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus globulus, Myrtapenidiella balenae on Eucalyptus sp., Myrtapenidiella eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus sp., Myrtapenidiella pleurocarpae on Eucalyptus pleurocarpa, Paraconiothyrium hakeae on Hakea sp., Paraphaeosphaeria xanthorrhoeae on Xanthorrhoea sp., Parateratosphaeria stirlingiae on Stirlingia sp., Perthomyces podocarpi (incl. Perthomyces gen. nov.) on Podocarpus sp., Readeriella ellipsoidea on Eucalyptus sp., Rosellinia australiensis on Banksia grandis, Tiarosporella corymbiae on Corymbia calophylla, Verrucoconiothyrium eucalyptigenum on Eucalyptus sp., Zasmidium commune on Xanthorrhoea sp., and Zasmidium podocarpi on Podocarpus sp. Brazil: Cyathus aurantogriseocarpus on decaying wood, Perenniporia brasiliensis on decayed wood, Perenniporia paraguyanensis on decayed wood, and Pseudocercospora leandrae-fragilis on Leandra fragilis. Chile: Phialocephala cladophialophoroides on human toe nail. Costa Rica: Psathyrella striatoannulata from soil. Czech Republic: Myotisia cremea (incl. Myotisia gen. nov.) on bat droppings. Ecuador: Humidicutis dictiocephala from soil, Hygrocybe macrosiparia from soil, Hygrocybe sangayensis from soil, and Polycephalomyces onorei on stem of Etlingera sp. France: Westerdykella centenaria from soil. Hungary: Tuber magentipunctatum from soil. India: Ganoderma mizoramense on decaying wood, Hodophilus indicus from soil, Keratinophyton turgidum in soil, and Russula arunii on Pterigota alata. Italy: Rhodocybe matesina from soil. Malaysia: Apoharknessia eucalyptorum, Harknessia malayensis, Harknessia pellitae, and Peyronellaea eucalypti on Eucalyptus pellita, Lectera capsici on Capsicum annuum, and Wallrothiella gmelinae on Gmelina arborea. Morocco: Neocordana musigena on Musa sp. New Zealand: Candida rongomai-pounamu on agaric mushroom surface, Candida vespimorsuum on cup fungus surface, Cylindrocladiella vitis on Vitis vinifera, Foliocryphia eucalyptorum on Eucalyptus sp., Ramularia vacciniicola on Vaccinium sp., and Rhodotorula ngohengohe on bird feather surface. Poland: Tolypocladium fumosum on a caterpillar case of unidentified Lepidoptera. Russia: Pholiotina longistipitata among moss. Spain: Coprinopsis pseudomarcescibilis from soil, Eremiomyces innocentii from soil, Gyroporus pseudocyanescens in humus, Inocybe parvicystis in humus, and Penicillium parvofructum from soil. Unknown origin: Paraphoma rhaphiolepidis on Rhaphiolepsis indica. USA: Acidiella americana from wall of a cooling tower, Neodactylaria obpyriformis (incl. Neodactylaria gen. nov.) from human bronchoalveolar lavage, and Saksenaea loutrophoriformis from human eye. Vietnam: Phytophthora mekongensis from Citrus grandis, and Phytophthora prodigiosa from Citrus grandis. Morphological and culture characteristics along with DNA barcodes are provided.
    Keywords: ITS nrDNA barcodes ; LSU ; novel fungal species ; systematics
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 3
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (0031-05850) vol.31 (2013) nr.1 p.147
    Publication Date: 2015-04-20
    Description: In this study we reassess the taxonomic reference of the previously described holomorphic alkaliphilic fungus Heleococcum alkalinum isolated from soda soils in Russia, Mongolia and Tanzania. We show that it is not an actual member of the genus Heleococcum (order Hypocreales) as stated before and should, therefore, be excluded from it and renamed. Multi-locus gene phylogeny analyses (based on nuclear ITS, 5.8S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 18S rDNA, RPB2 and TEF1-alpha) have displayed this fungus as a new taxon at the genus level within the family Plectosphaerellaceae, Hypocreomycetidae, Ascomycota. The reference species of actual Heleococcum members showed clear divergence from the strongly supported Heleococcum alkalinum position within the Plectosphaerellaceae, sister to the family Glomerellaceae. Eighteen strains isolated from soda lakes around the world show remarkable genetic similarity promoting speculations on their possible evolution in harsh alkaline environments. We established the pH growth optimum of this alkaliphilic fungus at c. pH 10 and tested growth on 30 carbon sources at pH 7 and 10. The new genus and species, Sodiomyces alkalinus gen. nov. comb. nov., is the second holomorphic fungus known within the family, the first one being Plectosphaerella – some members of this genus are known to be alkalitolerant. We propose the Plectosphaerellaceae family to be the source of alkaliphilic filamentous fungi as also the species known as Acremonium alcalophilum belongs to this group.
    Keywords: Alkaliphilic fungi ; growth ; Heleococcum alkalinum ; molecular phylogeny ; scanning electron microscopy ; taxonomy
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: The aim of this study was to assess potential candidate gene regions and corresponding universal primer pairs as secondary DNA barcodes for the fungal kingdom, additional to ITS rDNA as primary barcode. Amplification efficiencies of 14 (partially) universal primer pairs targeting eight genetic markers were tested across 〉 1 500 species (1 931 strains or specimens) and the outcomes of almost twenty thousand (19 577) polymerase chain reactions were evaluated. We tested several well-known primer pairs that amplify: i) sections of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene large subunit (D1–D2 domains of 26/28S); ii) the complete internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1/2); iii) partial β-tubulin II (TUB2); iv) γ-actin (ACT); v) translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1α); and vi) the second largest subunit of RNA-polymerase II (partial RPB2, section 5–6). Their PCR efficiencies were compared with novel candidate primers corresponding to: i) the fungal-specific translation elongation factor 3 (TEF3); ii) a small ribosomal protein necessary for t-RNA docking; iii) the 60S L10 (L1) RP; iv) DNA topoisomerase I (TOPI); v) phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK); vi) hypothetical protein LNS2; and vii) alternative sections of TEF1α. Results showed that several gene sections are accessible to universal primers (or primers universal for phyla) yielding a single PCR-product. Barcode gap and multi-dimensional scaling analyses revealed that some of the tested candidate markers have universal properties providing adequate infra- and inter-specific variation that make them attractive barcodes for species identification. Among these gene sections, a novel high fidelity primer pair for TEF1α, already widely used as a phylogenetic marker in mycology, has potential as a supplementary DNA barcode with superior resolution to ITS. Both TOPI and PGK show promise for the Ascomycota, while TOPI and LNS2 are attractive for the Pucciniomycotina, for which universal primers for ribosomal subunits often fail.
    Keywords: DNA barcoding ; ITS supplement ; molecular taxonomy ; phylogeny ; species identification ; universal primers
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 5
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (0031-05850) vol.33 (2014) nr.1 p.141
    Publication Date: 2015-04-20
    Description: Eumycetoma is a chronic fungal infection characterised by large subcutaneous masses and the presence of sinuses discharging coloured grains. The causative agents of black-grain eumycetoma mostly belong to the orders Sordariales and Pleosporales. The aim of the present study was to clarify the phylogeny and taxonomy of pleosporalean agents, viz. Madurella grisea, Medicopsis romeroi (syn.: Pyrenochaeta romeroi), Nigrograna mackinnonii (syn. Pyrenochaeta mackinnonii), Leptosphaeria senegalensis, L. tompkinsii, and Pseudochaetosphaeronema larense. A phylogenetic analysis based on five loci was performed: the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS), large (LSU) and small (SSU) subunit ribosomal RNA, the second largest RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1) gene. In addition, the morphological and physiological characteristics were determined. Three species were well-resolved at the family and genus level. Madurella grisea, L. senegalensis, and L. tompkinsii were found to belong to the family Trematospheriaceae and are reclassified as Trematosphaeria grisea comb. nov., Falciformispora senegalensis comb. nov., and F. tompkinsii comb. nov. Medicopsis romeroi and Pseudochaetosphaeronema larense were phylogenetically distant and both names are accepted. The genus Nigrograna is reduced to synonymy of Biatriospora and therefore N. mackinnonii is reclassified as B. mackinnonii comb. nov. Mycetoma agents in Pleosporales were phylogenetically quite diverse despite their morphological similarity in the formation of pycnidia, except for the ascosporulating genus Falciformispora (formerly in Leptosphaeria). Most of the species diagnosed from human mycetoma were found to be related to waterborne or marine fungi, suggesting an association of the virulence factors with oligotrophism or halotolerance.
    Keywords: Madurella ; mycetoma ; Pleosporales ; taxonomy ; Trematosphaeriaceae
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-12-17
    Description: Sporothrix globosa is a thermo-dimorphic fungus belonging to a pathogenic clade that also includes Sporothrix schenckii , which causes human and animal sporotrichosis. Here, we present the first genome assemblies of two S. globosa strains providing data for future comparative genomic studies in pathogenic Sporothrix species.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-03-22
    Description: In filamentous fungi, allorecognition takes the form of heterokaryon incompatibility, a cell death reaction triggered when genetically distinct hyphae fuse. Heterokaryon incompatibility is controlled by specific loci termed het -loci. In this article, we analyzed the natural variation in one such fungal allorecognition determinant, the het-c heterokaryon incompatibility locus of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina. The het-c locus determines an allogenic incompatibility reaction together with two unlinked loci termed het-d and het-e. Each het-c allele is incompatible with a specific subset of the het-d and het-e alleles. We analyzed variability at the het-c locus in a population of 110 individuals, and in additional isolates from various localities. We identified a total of 11 het-c alleles, which define 7 distinct incompatibility specificity classes in combination with the known het-d and het-e alleles. We found that the het-c allorecognition gene of P. anserina is under diversifying selection. We find a highly unequal allele distribution of het-c in the population, which contrasts with the more balanced distribution of functional groups of het-c based on their allorecognition function. One explanation for the observed het-c diversity in the population is its function in allorecognition. However, alleles that are most efficient in allorecognition are rare. An alternative and not exclusive explanation for the observed diversity is that het-c is involved in pathogen recognition. In Arabidopsis thaliana , a homolog of het-c is a pathogen effector target, supporting this hypothesis. We hypothesize that the het-c diversity in P. anserina results from both its functions in pathogen-defense, and allorecognition.
    Print ISSN: 0737-4038
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-1719
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
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