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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Information transfer ; communication ; contamination ; herbivore ; spider-mite (Tetranychus urticae) ; predator ; predatory mite (Phytoseiulus persimilis) ; cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) ; induced plant defence ; tritrophic interactions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract When infested by herbivorous mites, cotton seedlings produce volatile cues that elicit attraction of predatory mites. Experiments were carried out to elucidate how downwinduninfested conspecific seedlings are affected by these volatiles. It was found that the rate of oviposition of herbivorous mites was reduced on seedlings exposed to volatiles from infested seedlings. Moreover, predatory mites were attracted by exposeduninfested seedlings. These results strongly suggest that uninfested plants are better protected against herbivore attack when exposed to airborne chemicals released by their infested neighbours.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmacy world & science 2 (1980), S. 1175-1188 
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Samenvatting In dit artikel worden die aspecten van de homeopathie behandeld die voor de officine apotheker zouden kunnen bijdragen tot een beter inzicht in deze materie. Na een korte inleiding wordt ingegaan op de geneesmiddelkeuze bij homeotherapie. Bereidingswijzen en controle-methoden zijn beschreven zoals deze worden toegepast bij vsm Geneesmiddelenbv. Theorieën en experimenten zijn aangehaald ter illustratie van de huidige stand van onderzoek. Ook de wettelijke regelingen met betrekking tot het homeopathische geneesmiddel worden besproken. In een slotbeschouwing wordt ingegaan op de vraag of het homeopathisch middel kan worden beschouwd als geneesmiddel of behandelingsmiddel.
    Notes: Abstract This article deals with those aspects of homeopathy that might contribute to a better insight in this matter on the part of the officinal pharmacist. The short introduction leads to a discussion of the selection of therapeutics in homeotherapy. Preparation techniques and test methods as applied by vsm Geneesmiddelenbv are described. Theories and experiments are quoted as illustrations of the current state of research. The legal regulations governing homeopathic therapeutics are also discussed. The final conclusion deals with the question whether the homeopathic preparation can be seen as a curative agent or as a treatment aid.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Plants can defend themselves indirectly against herbivores by emitting a volatile blend upon herbivory that attracts the natural enemies of these herbivores, either predators or parasitoids. Although signal transduction in plants from herbivory to induced volatile production depends on jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), the pathways downstream of JA and SA are unknown. Use of Arabidopsis provides a unique possibility to study signal transduction by use of signalling mutants, which so far has not been exploited in studies on indirect plant defence. In the present study it was demonstrated that jar1-1 and npr1-1 mutants are not affected in caterpillar (Pieris rapae)-induced attraction of the parasitoid Cotesia rubecula. Both JAR1 and NPR1 (also known as NIM1) are involved in signalling downstream of JA in induced defence against pathogens such as induced systemic resistance (ISR). NPR1 is also involved in signalling downstream of SA in defence against pathogens such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These results demonstrate that signalling downstream of JA and SA differs between induced indirect defence against herbivores and defence against pathogens such as SAR and ISR. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that herbivore-derived elicitors are involved in induced attraction of the parasitoid Cotesia rubecula
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Hymenoptera ; Eucoilidae ; Leptopilina heterotoma ; Infochemicals ; Kairomone ; Drosophila
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Parasitoids that forage for herbivorous hosts by using infochemicals may have a problem concerning the reliability and detectability of these stimuli: host stimuli are highly reliable but not very detectable at a distance, while stimuli from the host's food are very detectable but generally not very reliable in indicating host presence. One solution to this problem is to learn to link highly detectable stimuli to reliable but not very detectable stimuli. Ample knowledge is available on how associative learning aids foraging parasitoids in the location of suitable microhabitats. However, in this paper we report on another solution to the reliability-detectability problem and present evidence for an essential, but as yet overlooked, aspect of Drosophila parasitoid ecology. For the first time it is shown that a parasitoid of Drosophila larvae spies on the communication system of adult Drosophila flies to locate potential host sites: naive parasitoids strongly respond to a volatile aggregation pheromone that is deposited in the oviposition site by recently mated female flies. Thus, the parasitoids resort to using highly detectable information from a host stage different from the one under attack (i.e. infochemical detour). The function and ecological implications of these findings are discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Cucumber plant ; Tetranychus urticae ; Phytoseiulus persimilis ; Acari ; herbivore-induced synomone ; tritrophic interaction ; oximes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the olfactory response of the predatory mitePhytoseiulus persimilis to cucumber leaves infested with prey, the herbivorous spider miteTetranychus urticae. The predators responded to volatiles from young rather than old infested cucumber leaves. GC-MS analysis of the head-space of spider mite-infested, artificially damaged and undamaged cucumber plants showed that herbivore-induced plant volatiles were present among the volatiles of both old and young infested cucumber leaves. The major components of the herbivore-induced plant volatiles were (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and (E)-β-ocimene: these compounds are known to attract the predatory mites. In addition, we found three oximes (2-methylbutanalO-methyloxime, 3-methylbutanalO-methyloxime, and an unknown oxime) in the headspace of both old and young infested cucumber leaves. 3-MethylbutanalO-methyloxime and the unknown oxime were much more abundant in the headspace of infested old cucumber leaves. The potential adaptive value of differential attractiveness of cucumber plant leaves of different age is discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Kairomone ; spider mites ; predatory mites ; lima bean leaves ; tritrophic system ; methylene monoterpene ; methylene sesquiterpene ; rearing diet ; carotene ; identification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A volatile kairomone emitted from lima bean plants (Phaseolus lunatus) infested with the spider miteTetranychus urticae, was collected on Tenax-TA and analyzed with GC-MS. Two components were identified as the methylene monoterpene (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and the methylene sesquiterpene (3E,7E)-4,8,12-dimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene, respectively, after purification by preparative GC on a megabore column and recording of UV, IR, and [1H]NMR spectra. The response of two species of predatory mites towards the identified chemicals was tested in a Y-tube olfactometer. Four of the compounds tested, linalool (3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol), (E)-β-ocimene [(3E)-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene], (3E)-4,8-dimethyI-1,3,7-nonatriene, and methyl salicylate attracted females ofPhytoseiulus persimilis. Linalool and methyl salicylate attracted females ofAmblyseius potentillae. The response ofA. potentillae to these two kairomone components was affected by the rearing diet of the predators in the same way as was reported for the response to the natural kairomone blend: when reared on a carotenoid-deficient diet, the predators responded to the volatile kairomone ofT. urticae, but when reared on a carotenoid-containing diet they did not. The identified kairomone components are all known from the plant kingdom. They are not known to be produced by animals de novo. In addition to biological evidence, this chemical evidence suggests that the plant is involved in production of the kairomone. Based on the present study and literature data on the response ofT. urticae to infochemicals, it is concluded that the kairomone component linalool is also a component of a volatile spider-mite dispersing pheromone.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Pseudaletia separata ; Cotesia kariyai ; Apanteles ; herbivore-induced synomone ; Y-tube olfactometer ; leaf volatiles ; terpenoids ; indole ; regurgitant ; herbivore developmental stage specificity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The female parasitic waspCotesia kariyai discriminated between the volatiles of corn leaves infested by younger host larvaePseudaletia separata (first to fourth instar) and uninfested leaves in a Y-tube olfactometer; the wasps were attracted to the infested leaves. In contrast, when corn plants were infested by the later stages (fifth and sixth instar) of the armyworm, the wasps did not distinguish between infested corn leaves and uninfested corn leaves in the olfactometer. Mechanically damaged leaves were no more attractive than undamaged leaves, and host larvae or their feces were not attractive to the parasitoid. Through chemical analysis, the herbivore-induced plant volatiles were identified in the headspace of infested corn leaves. The herbivore-induced volatiles (HIVs) constituted a larger proportion of the headspace of corn leaves infested by early instar armyworms than of corn leaves infested by late instar armyworms. Application of third-instar larval regurgitant onto artificially damaged sites of leaves resulted in emission of parasitoid attractants from the leaf, whereas leaves treated with sixth-instar regurgitant did not. The function of this herbivore-stage related specificity of herbivore-induced synomones is discussed in a tritrophic context.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Herbivore-induced synomones ; infochemicals ; semiochemicals ; learning ; biological control ; prey location ; behavior ; Acarina ; Phytoseiulus persimilis ; Tetranychus urticae ; Gerbera jamesonii
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract When leaves of the ornamental crop Gerbera jamesonii are damaged by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, they produce many volatile compounds in large quantities. Undamaged gerbera leaves produce only a few volatiles in very small quantities. In the headspace of spider mite-damaged gerbera leaves many terpenoids are present, comprising 65% of the volatile blend. In addition, a number of nitrogen containing compounds, such as oximes and nitriles, are produced. We studied the attraction of P. persimilis to the volatiles from spider mite-damaged gerbera leaves and how attraction is affected by starvation and previous experience. Phytoseiulus persimilis that were reared on spider mites (T. urticae) on Lima bean were not attracted to spider mite-induced volatiles from gerbera. Starvation did not influence the predator's response to these volatiles. In contrast, predators that were reared on spider mites on gerbera leaves were strongly attracted to volatiles from spider mite-infested gerbera. This was found also for predators that originated from a culture on spider mite-infested bean and were offered six days of experience with spider mites on gerbera leaves.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Leptopilinaheterotoma ; Hymenoptera ; Eucoilidae ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; host-habitat searching ; chemoreception ; fermentation products ; ethanol ; ethyl acetate ; acetaldehyde
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Chemical stimuli play an important role in the process of searching for a host habitat by parasitic wasps. Volatile compounds originating from host habitats and/or hosts are the cues that enable such a location.Leptopilina heterotoma, a larval parasite ofDrosophila, is attracted to the food of its host, baker's yeast. Analysis of the fermentation products of baker's yeast, using a mass spectrometer, and olfactometer studies indicate that three fermentation products of this yeast, the main component of the host habitat in our laboratory, attractL. heterotoma: ethanol (5%), ethyl acetate (10−2, 10−3%), and acetaldehyde (1%). A combination of these three compounds, however, cannot compete with baker's yeast in attracting the parasites. Thus other factors, such as different compounds, concentrations, and/or combinations, also, play a role and remain to be tested.Leptopilina heterotoma does not use host-related olfactory cues in long-distance habitat location as it cannot distinguish between host habitat and host habitat with hosts.
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