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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Wilmette, Ill. : Snow Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-52
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 52
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary: The results of studies on the physical properties of fog whiteout, as it occurred at Site 2 on the Greenland Ice Cap in the summers of 1956 and 1957, are reported and compared with the results of other studies; the instruments, methods of measurement, and data-reduction techniques used are described; and attempts at dissipating whiteout by AgI (silver iodide) seeding are discussed briefly. Emphasis was given to measurements of fog-particle size distribution, liquid-water content, relative humidity, visibility, and atmospheric nuclei. The data are tabulated. The synoptic situations for 2 selected cases of fog whiteout at relative humidities of less than 100% (possibly because of the presence of salt solutions) are described; and the balance between the rate at which water is made available in the air as it is lifted over the Ice Cap and the rate of water flux to the snow surface is computed using various equations. Efforts at fog dispersal by AgI seeding from the ground were inconclusive.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 18, A1 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 52
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Summary Introduction Definition of whiteout Scope of this study Instrumentation and observations Location of project: Fog particle measurements Atmospheric humidity measurements Visibility measurements Air temperature measurements Radiation measurements Atmospheric nuclei Observations of fog whiteout Conditions prior to onset of whiteout Conditions at time of arrival and during whiteout Micro-structure of fog whiteout Analysis of moisture balance during two selected cases Synoptic situation for case 1 Synoptic situation for case 2 Computations Attempts at fog whiteout dispersal References Appendix A - Freezing nuclei observations Appendix B - Absolute humidity gradient data
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  • 2
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Wilmette, Ill. : Snow Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-43
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 43
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary: Charts of mean annual air temperature and precipitation over the ice cap are constructed on the basis of snow-profile studies at 8 locations, data collected for several years after 1953 at two U.S. Air Force weather stations, and records from expeditions since 1930. The warming trend in the Arctic appears to have occurred to a lesser degree on the ice cap, possibly because of the effect of the snow cover. The lowest mean annual temperature in South Greenland is estimated to occur within the area bounded by the 2500 m contour and the -18°C isotherm; mean annual temperature at 2700 is estimated as -20.9°C. In North Greenland, the mean annual temperature at 1700 m is estimated at -22°C. The presence of ice glands in the snow and daily max summer temperatures, estimated from records of coastal stations, indicate a potentially high incidence of melting at about 1300 m elevation and some melting at 1700 m in North Greenland, and melting up to 2700 m in the South. Annual accumulation is 2-3 times as great at 2500 m on the west side of the ice cap as at the crest. South of 66°N, precipitation may be about twice as great on the east side of the crest as in the west.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 9 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 43
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Summary Introduction Derivation of mean annual air temperature data Annual accumulation References
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  • 3
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Wilmette, Ill. : Snow Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-19
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 19
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract: Measurements were made of global and net radiation between 6 July and 7 August 1955 at a site on the Greenland Ice Cap located near 78°N latitude and at an elevation of 6800 ft. Snow-surface temperatures during this period were below 0°C and mean cloudiness was 0.7. Total incident global radiation measured during the 33-day period amounted to 20,628 𝑙𝑦 of which only 3059 𝑙𝑦, or about 15%, were absorbed by the snow cover. Most of the absorbed global radiation was re-emitted as long-wave radiation, so the net gain during the observation period amounted to not more than 7.6 𝑙𝑦/day. Diffuse sky radiation amounted to only 19% of all incoming global radiation measured at the ice-cap research site. In the temperate zone, diffuse sky radiation amounts to 30% or more of the incoming radiation. The small amount of diffuse sky radiation indicates low atmospheric turbidity in this polar climatic zone. Incident global radiation was reduced by 6% in the presence of a 0.5 cloud cover. Under full overcast conditions the snow surface received 65% of the global radiation measured on clear days. In the temperate zone as little as 30% of global radiation reaches the earth under full cloud cover. The large amount of global radiation received in the Arctic under full cloud cover is the primary cause of one form of arctic white-out. Accompanying the small decrease in global radiation caused by cloudiness is a large decrease in effective outgoing long-wave radiation, with an increase in the net radiation balance. This condition contributes to a greater potential ablation of the snow and ice cover during cloudy seasons. The long-wave radiation balance at this site on the ice cap was always negative during the period covered by this study. Errors associated with the measurement of solar radiation at the low sun angles which prevailed at the research site were found to be about -3%. No correction was applied to the basic data, however, since there were insufficient data to establish the consistency of this error over the period of observation. During periods of blowing and drifting snow, 6% more global radiation was measured at 1.25 m above the snow surface than at 5.7 m elevation. The increase may be due to multiple reflection within the layer of blowing snow. The atmospheric transmission coefficient at the ice-cap site was found to be 0.968. This high value was associated with the low atmospheric turbidity. The heat balance of the snow cover as computed from the radiation measurements and a temperature profile in the snow was found to be 7.6 𝑙𝑦/day at the ice-cap site. This is a negligible heat gain when compared with the 400 𝑙𝑦/day gain by a spring snow pack in the Sierra Nevada of California. For the entire season when the sun is above the horizon, the estimated net gain by the ice cap is 1000 𝑙𝑦, no more than a 2-1/2-day heat supply used in melting the snow of the High Sierra. Some measurements made with a silicon solar battery similar to those developed by the Bell Telephone Laboratories indicate that it may have a significantly higher efficiency on the ice cap than in the more temperate zone. Verification of this apparent increase in efficiency and the causes for it require further study of the performance of the p-n junction cells in the Arctic.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 20, [2] Seiten , Illustrationen , 27 cm
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 19
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS I. Introduction II. Instrumentation Recording of data III. Results Global radiation Albedo of snow Diffuse sky radiation Effect of clouds on radiation Atmospheric and terrestrial radiation Effect of low sun angle on measured radiation Global radiation gradient Atmospheric transmission coefficient Heat balance of snow cover Applied use of solar energy References. Appendix
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  • 4
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Wilmette, Ill. : Snow Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-21
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 21
    Description / Table of Contents: Limited studies of white-outs on the Greenland Ice Cap indicate that five major types of low visibility have been reported as white-out. They are: 1.) Overcast white-out, caused by a continuous cloud cover. 2.) Water-fog white-out, produced by supercooled water droplets in the air. 3.) Ice-fog white-out, produced by ice crystals suspended in the air. 4.) Blowing snow white-out, produced by wind-driven, wind-eroded snow. 5.) Precipitation white-out, produced by falling snow. The first three types are interrelated and appear to be produced by upslope, convective lifting of warm maritime air and the advective transport of the cooled saturated air over the cold snow field. Radiation heat losses from the snow surface may contribute to more rapid formation of the white-out. The fact that there is a shift in the prevailing wind direction prior to the development of a white-out indicates that certain changes in upper air circulation may be associated with white-out formation and duration. There is reason to believe that upper air and surface observations might make it possible to forecast white-outs on the Greenland Ice Cap with some degree of reliability.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 12 Seiten , Illustrationen , 27 cm
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 21
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Summary Introduction Results at Site 2 Discussion References
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1972-09-01
    Print ISSN: 0003-0007
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0477
    Topics: Geography , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1958-01-01
    Description: The record of annual precipitation as obtained from stratigraphic studies on snow profiles in the interior of northern Greenland made in 1954 by SIPRE personnel shows a decreasing precipitation trend since 1920 with the largest decrease occurring since 1932. A residual mass curve analysis of the data indicates that, in spite of large fluctuations in the accumulated precipitation, the decreasing trend may be considered valid over a period of several years.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1958-01-01
    Description: The record of annual precipitation as obtained from stratigraphic studies on snow profiles in the interior of northern Greenland made in 1954 by SIPRE personnel shows a decreasing precipitation trend since 1920 with the largest decrease occurring since 1932. A residual mass curve analysis of the data indicates that, in spite of large fluctuations in the accumulated precipitation, the decreasing trend may be considered valid over a period of several years.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1960-01-01
    Description: Mean annual air temperatures and precipitation on the Greenland Ice Sheet, as estimated from snow profile studies and long-term meteorological records at coastal stations, have been used to prepare mean annual air temperature and mean annual precipitation charts for the Greenland Ice Sheet. It is shown that melting of surface snow may occur at elevations of about 1,300 m. in north Greenland and up to 2,700 m. in south Greenland. The warming trend in the Arctic, as indicated by increases in mean annual air temperature, may have occurred to a lesser extent on the ice sheet than at sea-level coastal stations. Annual accumulation of precipitation is two or three times as great at 2,700 m. on the west side of the ice sheet as at the crest. South of lat. 66° N., precipitation may be about twice as great on the east side of the crest as on the west side.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1960-01-01
    Description: Mean annual air temperatures and precipitation on the Greenland Ice Sheet, as estimated from snow profile studies and long-term meteorological records at coastal stations, have been used to prepare mean annual air temperature and mean annual precipitation charts for the Greenland Ice Sheet. It is shown that melting of surface snow may occur at elevations of about 1,300 m. in north Greenland and up to 2,700 m. in south Greenland. The warming trend in the Arctic, as indicated by increases in mean annual air temperature, may have occurred to a lesser extent on the ice sheet than at sea-level coastal stations. Annual accumulation of precipitation is two or three times as great at 2,700 m. on the west side of the ice sheet as at the crest. South of lat. 66° N., precipitation may be about twice as great on the east side of the crest as on the west side.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1965-11-15
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Electronic ISSN: 2156-2202
    Topics: Geosciences
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